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Map of Zambia

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Zambia
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. The new president launched a far-reaching anti-corruption campaign in 2002, which resulted in the prosecution of former President Frederick CHILUBA and many of his supporters in late 2003. Opposition parties currently hold a majority of seats in the National Assembly.

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   Geography    Zambia
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, east of Angola
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 752,614 sq km
land: 740,724 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7.08%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 92.9% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
460 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic drought, tropical storms (November to April)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe

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   People    Zambia
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,462,436
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 46.1% (male 2,419,361; female 2,401,538)
15-64 years: 51.1% (male 2,684,001; female 2,667,528)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 132,166; female 157,842) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16.6 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 16.6 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.47% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.99 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.35 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 98.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 90.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 35.18 years
male: 35.19 years
female: 35.17 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.14 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.8 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
170,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 80.6%
male: 86.8%
female: 74.8% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Zambia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lusaka
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
24 October 1964 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
24 August 1991
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Nevers MUMBA (since May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Nevers MUMBA (since May 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2006); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Levy MWANAWASA elected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 29%, Anderson MAZOKA 27%, Christon TEMBO 13%, Tilyenji KAUNDA 10%, Godfrey MIYANDA 8%, Benjamin MWILA 5%, Michael SATA 3%, other 5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - MMD 45.9%, UPND 32.4%, UNIP 8.8%, FDD 8.1%, HP 2.7%, PF 0.7%, ZRP 0.7%, independents 0.7%; seats by party - MMD 68, UPND 48, UNIP 13, FDD 12, HP 4, PF 1, ZRP 1, independents 1; seats not determined 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Christon TEMBO]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Levy MWANAWASA, acting president]; National Leadership for Development or NLD [Yobert SHAMAPANDE]; National Party or NP [Dr. Sam CHIPUNGU]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Gwendoline KONIE]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Francis NKHOMA, president]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin George BRENNAN
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

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   Economy    Zambia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Despite progress in privatization and budgetary reform, Zambia's economic growth remains below the 5% to 7% necessary to reduce poverty significantly. Privatization of government-owned copper mines relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. Copper output increased in 2003 and is expected to increase again in 2004, due to higher copper prices. The maize harvest doubled in 2003, helping boost GDP by 4.0%. Cooperation continues with international bodies on programs to reduce poverty, including a new lending arrangement with the IMF expected in the second quarter, 2004. A tighter monetary policy will help cut inflation, but Zambia still has a serious problem with fiscal discipline.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $8.596 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 15.3%
industry: 27.9%
services: 56.9% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45.2% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
86% (1993)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 41% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
52.6 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.4% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.59 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 85%, industry 6%, services 9%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $896.7 million
expenditures: $1.142 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
133.6% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides; coffee
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.751 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.458 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.75 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-340 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.039 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
copper 55%, cobalt, electricity, tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 28.3%, Malawi 8.7%, Saint Pierre and Miquelon 7.6%, Japan 6.2%, Egypt 5.3%, UK 5.2%, Thailand 4.8%, China 4.4%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.128 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 71.3%, China 2.8%, UK 2.8% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$247.7 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.281 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$651 million (2000 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Zambian kwacha (ZMK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
ZMK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Zambian kwacha per US dollar - 4,733.77 (2003), 4,398.59 (2002), 3,610.93 (2001), 3,110.84 (2000), 2,388.02 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Zambia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
88,400 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
241,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
9 (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.zm
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,880 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
68,200 (2003)

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   Transportation    Zambia
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,173 km
narrow gauge: 2,173 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 66,781 km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
2,250 km
note: includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
oil 771 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Mpulungu
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
109 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 98
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 63
under 914 m: 30 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Zambia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Army, Air Force, Police, National Service
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,477,494 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,310,814 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$42.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Zambia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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