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Map of Ukraine

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Ukraine
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Ukraine was the center of the first Slavic state, Kievan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kievan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kievan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-1920), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although independence was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, true freedom remains elusive, as the legacy of state control has been difficult to throw off. Where state control has dissipated, endemic corruption has filled much of the resulting vacuum, stalling efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.

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   Geography    Ukraine
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
49 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia, Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 603,700 sq km
land: 603,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,663 km
border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,782 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 56.21%
permanent crops: 1.61%
other: 42.18% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
24,540 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

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   People    Ukraine
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
47,732,079 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.9% (male 3,883,485; female 3,715,668)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 15,692,388; female 17,096,611)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 2,472,023; female 4,871,904) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.1 years
male: 34.8 years
female: 41.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.66% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.21 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.41 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.51 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.87 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 66.68 years
male: 61.35 years
female: 72.27 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.37 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,000 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.5%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Kiev Patriarchate 20%, Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate) 13%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Protestant, Jewish
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
People - note:
Definition Field Listing
the sex trafficking of Ukrainian women is a serious problem that has only recently been addressed

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   Government    Ukraine
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Kiev (Kyyiv)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
24 oblasti (singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtomnaya respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkas'ka (Cherkasy), Chernihivs'ka (Chernihiv), Chernivets'ka (Chernivtsi), Dnipropetrovs'ka (Dnipropetrovs'k), Donets'ka (Donets'k), Ivano-Frankivs'ka (Ivano-Frankivs'k), Kharkivs'ka (Kharkiv), Khersons'ka (Kherson), Khmel'nyts'ka (Khmel'nyts'kyy), Kirovohrads'ka (Kirovohrad), Kyyiv**, Kyyivs'ka (Kiev), Luhans'ka (Luhans'k), L'vivs'ka (L'viv), Mykolayivs'ka (Mykolayiv), Odes'ka (Odesa), Poltavs'ka (Poltava), Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Rivnens'ka (Rivne), Sevastopol'**, Sums'ka (Sumy), Ternopil's'ka (Ternopil'), Vinnyts'ka (Vinnytsya), Volyns'ka (Luts'k), Zakarpats'ka (Uzhhorod), Zaporiz'ka (Zaporizhzhya), Zhytomyrs'ka (Zhytomyr); note - when using a place name with an adjectival ending "s'ka" or "z'ka," the word Oblast' should be added to the place name
note: oblasts have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 24 August (1991); the date of 22 January (1918), the day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia), is now celebrated as Unity Day
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 28 June 1996
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Leonid D. KUCHMA (since 19 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor YANUKOVYCH (since 21 November 2002); First Deputy Prime Minister Mykola AZAROV (since 26 November 2002)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council, but significantly revamped and strengthened under President KUCHMA; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Administration that helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president; and a Council of Regions that serves as an advisory body created by President KUCHMA in September 1994 that includes chairmen of the Kiev (Kyyiv) and Sevastopol' municipalities and chairmen of the oblasti
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held 31 October 2004); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the Supreme Council
election results: Leonid D. KUCHMA elected president; percent of vote - Leonid KUCHMA 57.7%, Petro SYMONENKO 38.8%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; under Ukraine's election law, 225 of the Supreme Council's seats are allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 4% or more of the national electoral vote; the other 225 members are elected by popular vote in single-mandate constituencies; all serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 31 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Our Ukraine 24%, CPU 20%, United Ukraine 12%, SPU 7%, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 7%, United Social Democratic Party 6%, other 24%; seats by party - Our Ukraine 102, Regions of Ukraine 67, CPU 59, Working Ukraine-Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 42, United Social Democratic Party 36, People's Power 22, SPU 20, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 19, Democratic Initiatives 18, Agrarian Party 16, People's Democratic Party 14, People's Choice 14, others 21 (January 2004)
note: following the election, United Ukraine splintered into the Agrarian Party, European Choice, People's Choice, People's Democratic Party, Regions of Ukraine, and Working Ukraine-Industrialists and Entrepreneurs; European Choice joined Regions of Ukraine in the fall of 2003
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Agrarian Party [Kateryna VASHCHUK]; Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; Democratic Initiatives [Stepan HAVRYSH]; Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; Our Ukraine bloc (comprised of several parties the most prominent of which are Rukh, the Ukrainian People's Party, Reforms and Order, and Solidarity) [Viktor YUSHCHENKO]; People's Choice [Mykola HAPOCHKA]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Valeriy PUSTOVOYTENKO]; People's Power [Bohdan HUBSKYY]; Regions of Ukraine [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; United Social Democratic Party [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]; Working Ukraine [Serhiy TYHYPKO]; Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
note: and numerous smaller parties; Democratic Initiatives, People's Choice, and People's Power are not actual political parties, but rather deputy groups (factions not based on a party)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer), ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mykhailo B. REZNIK
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John E. HERBST
embassy: 10 Yurii Kotsiubynskyi Street, Kiev 01901
mailing address: 5850 Kiev Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
telephone: [380] (44) 490-4000
FAX: [380] (44) 244-7350
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grainfields under a blue sky

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   Economy    Ukraine
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of the former USSR. Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas, to meet some 85% of its annual energy requirements. Shortly after independence in December 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Now in his second term, President KUCHMA has pledged to reduce the number of government agencies, streamline the regulatory process, create a legal environment to encourage entrepreneurs, and enact a comprehensive tax overhaul. Reforms in the more politically sensitive areas of structural reform and land privatization are still lagging. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms. GDP in 2000 showed strong export-based growth of 6% - the first growth since independence - and industrial production grew 12.9%. The economy continued to expand in 2001 as real GDP rose 9% and industrial output grew by over 14%. Growth of 4.1% in 2002 was more moderate, in part a reflection of faltering growth in the developed world. In general, growth has been undergirded by strong domestic demand, low inflation, and solid consumer and investor confidence. Growth was a sturdy 8.2% in 2003 despite a loss of momentum in needed economic reforms.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $260.4 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $5,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 18.8%
industry: 44.8%
services: 36.4% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
29% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 23.2% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
29 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.2% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.29 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 24%, industry 32%, services 44% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.7% officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $14.1 billion
expenditures: $14.19 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing (especially sugar)
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.8% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
164.7 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
152.4 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
800 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
86,490 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
290,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
197.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
74.1 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
560.7 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.891 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23.63 billion (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 17.4%, Turkey 7.2%, Italy 5.9%, China 5.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23.58 billion (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 33.4%, Germany 13.7%, Turkmenistan 6.3%, Italy 4.6%, China 4.4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.937 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16.13 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$637.7 million (1995); IMF Extended Funds Facility $2.2 billion (1998)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
hryvnia (UAH)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
UAH
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
hryvnia per US dollar - 5.3327 (2003), 5.3266 (2002), 5.3722 (2001), 5.4402 (2000), 4.1304 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Ukraine
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,833,300 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.2 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system
domestic: at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is now rising slowly and the domestic trunk system is being improved; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate
international: country code - 380; two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 134, FM 289, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
at least 33 (plus 21 repeaters that relay broadcasts from Russia) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ua
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
94,345 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
900,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Ukraine
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 22,473 km
broad gauge: 22,473 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 169,491 km
paved: 163,898 km
unpaved: 5,593 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
4,499 km
note: 1,672 km are on the Pryp'yat' and Dniester (Dnister)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 20,069 km; oil 4,435 km; refined products 4,098 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Berdyans'k, Feodosiya, Illichivs'k, Izmayil, Kerch, Kherson, Kiev (Kyyiv), Kiliya, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni, Sevastopol', Yalta, Yuzhnyy
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 675,904 GRT/709,802 DWT
by type: bulk 7, cargo 92, container 7, liquefied gas 2, passenger 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 10, rail car carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea/passenger 1
foreign-owned: Belize 2, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Hungary 2, Italy 1, Russia 4, Turkey 3
registered in other countries: 87 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
702 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 174
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 57
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 70 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 528
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 469 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
8 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Ukraine
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVS) Troops, Border Troops
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 12,196,319 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 9,565,088 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 386,945 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$617.9 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (FY02)

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   Transnational Issues    Ukraine
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete but boundary through the Sea of Azov and Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Ukraine protests Russia's construction of a causeway in the direction of Ukrainian-administered Tuzla Island in the Kerch Strait; difficulties with Moldova's Transnistria region complicate controlling border crossing and customs regimes despite concordance on the 2003 delimitation and customs protocols and OSCE assistance; has not resolved Romanian claims to Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary despite ongoing talks based on 1997 friendship treaty to find a solution in two years
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; drug-related money laundering a minor, but growing, problem; anti-money-laundering regime improving but remains on Financial Action Task Force Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories List for continued failure to address deficiencies in money-laundering control regime

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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