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DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    United Kingdom
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Great Britain, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a founding member of NATO, and of the Commonwealth, the UK pursues a global approach to foreign policy; it currently is weighing the degree of its integration with continental Europe. A member of the EU, it chose to remain outside the European Monetary Union for the time being. Constitutional reform is also a significant issue in the UK. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1999, but the latter is suspended due to bickering over the peace process.

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   Geography    United Kingdom
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Europe, islands including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, northwest of France
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
54 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 244,820 sq km
land: 241,590 sq km
water: 3,230 sq km
note: includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 360 km
border countries: Ireland 360 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
12,429 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: The Fens -4 m
highest point: Ben Nevis 1,343 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 23.46%
permanent crops: 0.21%
other: 76.33% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,080 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
winter windstorms; floods
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move towards a domestic goal of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government aims to reduce the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and to recycle or compost at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015; between 1998-99 and 1999-2000, household recycling increased from 8.8% to 10.3%
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters

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   People    United Kingdom
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60,270,708 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18% (male 5,560,489; female 5,293,871)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 20,193,876; female 19,736,516)
65 years and over: 15.7% (male 4,027,721; female 5,458,235) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.7 years
male: 37.6 years
female: 39.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.29% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.88 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.19 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 78.27 years
male: 75.84 years
female: 80.83 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
460 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective: British
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Anglican and Roman Catholic 40 million, Muslim 1.5 million, Presbyterian 800,000, Methodist 760,000, Sikh 500,000, Hindu 500,000, Jewish 350,000
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 99% (2000 est.)
male: NA
female: NA

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   Government    United Kingdom
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
conventional short form: United Kingdom
abbreviation: UK
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
London
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
England - 47 boroughs, 36 counties, 29 London boroughs, 12 cities and boroughs, 10 districts, 12 cities, 3 royal boroughs
: boroughs: Barnsley, Blackburn with Darwen, Blackpool, Bolton, Bournemouth, Bracknell Forest, Brighton and Hove, Bury, Calderdale, Darlington, Doncaster, Dudley, Gateshead, Halton, Hartlepool, Kirklees, Knowsley, Luton, Medway, Middlesbrough, Milton Keynes, North Tyneside, Oldham, Poole, Reading, Redcar and Cleveland, Rochdale, Rotherham, Sandwell, Sefton, Slough, Solihull, Southend-on-Sea, South Tyneside, St. Helens, Stockport, Stockton-on-Tees, Swindon, Tameside, Thurrock, Torbay, Trafford, Walsall, Warrington, Wigan, Wirral, Wolverhampton
: counties: Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derbyshire, Devon, Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Somerset, Staffordshire, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex, Wiltshire, Worcestershire
: London boroughs: Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth
: cities and boroughs: Birmingham, Bradford, Coventry, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Salford, Sheffield, Sunderland, Wakefield, Westminster
: districts: Bath and North East Somerset, East Riding of Yorkshire, North East Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, North Somerset, Rutland, South Gloucestershire, Telford and Wrekin, West Berkshire, Wokingham
: cities: City of Bristol, Derby, City of Kingston upon Hull, Leicester, City of London, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Southampton, Stoke-on-Trent, York
: royal boroughs: Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Windsor and Maidenhead
: Northern Ireland - 24 districts, 2 cities, 6 counties
: districts: Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane
: cities: Belfast, Derry
: counties: County Antrim, County Armagh, County Down, County Fermanagh, County Londonderry, County Tyrone
: Scotland - 32 council areas: Aberdeen City, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, The Scottish Borders, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, Dundee City, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fife, Glasgow City, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Orkney Islands, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Shetland Islands, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, West Dunbartonshire, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), West Lothian;
: Wales - 11 county boroughs, 9 counties, 2 cities and counties
: county boroughs: Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Conwy, Gwynedd, Merthyr Tydfil, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Torfaen, Wrexham
: counties: Isle of Anglesey, Ceredigion, Carmarthenshire, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Monmouthshire, Pembrokeshire, Powys, The Vale of Glamorgan
: cities and counties: Cardiff, Swansea
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales, begun in 1284 with the Statute of Rhuddlan, was not formalized until 1536 with an Act of Union; in another Act of Union in 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanently join as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland and the current name of the country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
the UK does not celebrate one particular national holiday
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; has judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government: Prime Minister Anthony (Tony) BLAIR (since 2 May 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament comprised of House of Lords (consists of approximately 500 life peers, 92 hereditary peers and 26 clergy) and House of Commons (659 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)
elections: House of Lords - no elections (note - in 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held in the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain there; pending further reforms, elections are held only as vacancies in the hereditary peerage arise); House of Commons - last held 7 June 2001 (next to be held by NA May 2006)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Labor 42.1%, Conservative and Unionist 32.7%, Liberal Democrats 18.8%, other 6.4%; seats by party - Labor 412, Conservative and Unionist 166, Liberal Democrat 52, other 29; note - seating as of 5 January 2004: Labor 408, Conservative 163, Liberal Democrats 54, other 34
note: in 1998 elections were held for a Northern Ireland Assembly (because of unresolved disputes among existing parties, the transfer of power from London to Northern Ireland came only at the end of 1999 and has been suspended four times the latest occurring in October 2002; since October 2002 the Northern Ireland Parliament has been suspended); in 1999 there were elections for a new Scottish Parliament and a new Welsh Assembly
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are appointed by the monarch for life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Conservative and Unionist Party [Michael HOWARD]; Democratic Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Rev. Ian PAISLEY]; Labor Party [Anthony (Tony) BLAIR]; Liberal Democrats [Charles KENNEDY]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Dafydd IWAN]; Scottish National Party or SNP [leader NA]; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Mark DURKAN]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [David TRIMBLE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador David G. MANNING
chancery: 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-7870
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Dallas, Denver, Miami, and Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William S. FARISH
embassy: 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London, W1A1AE
mailing address: PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone: [44] (0) 20 7499-9000
FAX: [44] (0) 20 7629-9124
consulate(s) general: Belfast, Edinburgh
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, as well as British overseas territories

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   Economy    United Kingdom
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is one of the quartet of trillion dollar economies of Western Europe. Over the past two decades the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 10% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial nation. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while industry continues to decline in importance. GDP growth slipped in 2001-03 as the global downturn, the high value of the pound, and the bursting of the "new economy" bubble hurt manufacturing and exports. Still, the economy is one of the strongest in Europe; inflation, interest rates, and unemployment remain low. The relatively good economic performance has complicated the BLAIR government's efforts to make a case for Britain to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Critics point out, however, that the economy is doing well outside of EMU, and they point to public opinion polls that continue to show a majority of Britons opposed to the euro. Meantime, the government has been speeding up the improvement of education, transport, and health services, at a cost in higher taxes. The war in March-April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq, together with the subsequent problems of restoring the economy and the polity, involve a heavy commitment of British military forces.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1.666 trillion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $27,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 26.5%
services: 72.6% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.2% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
17% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 27.7% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
36.8 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.6 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 1%, industry 25%, services 74% (1999)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $688.9 billion
expenditures: $746.1 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-0.7% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
360.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
346.1 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
264 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
10.66 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.541 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.71 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.205 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.418 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.741 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
105.9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
92.85 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
714.9 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-7.556 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$304.5 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 15.7%, Germany 10.5%, France 9.5%, Netherlands 6.9%, Ireland 6.5%, Belgium 5.6%, Spain 4.4%, Italy 4.4% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$363.6 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 13.5%, US 10.2%, France 8.1%, Netherlands 6.3%, Belgium 4.9%, Italy 4.7% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$46.05 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2002 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $4.5 billion (2000)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
British pound (GBP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
GBP
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
British pounds per US dollar - 0.6125 (2003), 0.6672 (2002), 0.6947 (2001), 0.6609 (2000), 0.6181 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
6 April - 5 April

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   Communications    United Kingdom
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.898 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
49.677 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems
international: country code - 44; 40 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
228 (plus 3,523 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.uk
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,398,708 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25 million (2002)

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   Transportation    United Kingdom
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 17,186 km
standard gauge: 16,726 km 1.435-m gauge (5,243 km electrified)
broad gauge: 460 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Ireland) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 371,913 km
paved: 371,913 km (including 3,358 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
3,200 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 370 km; gas 21,263 km; liquid petroleum gas 59 km; oil 6,420 km; oil/gas/water 63 km; refined products 4,474 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth, Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Ramsgate, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Teesport, Tyne
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 384 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 9,181,284 GRT/9,566,275 DWT
by type: bulk 20, cargo 50, chemical tanker 28, combination ore/oil 1, container 130, liquefied gas 23, livestock carrier 1, multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 20, petroleum tanker 45, refrigerated cargo 18, roll on/roll off 34, short-sea/passenger 11, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: Australia 2, Croatia 4, Cyprus 1, Denmark 42, Finland 1, Germany 52, Greece 36, Hong Kong 16, Italy 3, Japan 1, Monaco 13, Nigeria 1, Norway 32, South Africa 2, Sweden 13, Taiwan 7, United
registered in other countries: 522 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
471 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 334
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 150
914 to 1,523 m: 86
under 914 m: 57 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 137
2438 to 3047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 112 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
11 (2003 est.)

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   Military    United Kingdom
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 14,943,016 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 12,393,785 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$42,836.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    United Kingdom
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
since Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum in 2003 against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement, talks between the UK and Spain over the fate of the 300-year old UK colony have stalled; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory), and its former inhabitants since their eviction in 1965; most reside chiefly in Mauritius, and in 2001 were granted UK citizenship and the right to repatriation; UK continues to reject sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland remains dormant; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; disputes with Iceland, Denmark, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside 200 nm
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center

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