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Map of Turkmenistan

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Turkmenistan
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.

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   Geography    Turkmenistan
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
40 00 N, 60 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: negl.
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical desert
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3.72%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 96.14% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
17,500 sq km (2003 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau

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   People    Turkmenistan
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,863,169 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 36.2% (male 904,627; female 857,601)
15-64 years: 59.7% (male 1,423,836; female 1,477,224)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 76,670; female 123,211) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21.3 years
male: 20.4 years
female: 22.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.81% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.82 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.82 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 73.13 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 76.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 69.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 61.29 years
male: 57.87 years
female: 64.88 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.45 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2004 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

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   Government    Turkmenistan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Ashgabat
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dasoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 18 May 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
note: NIYAZOV's term in office was extended indefinitely on 28 December 1999 by the Assembly (Majlis) during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA); note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by the Assembly on 28 December 1999); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president
election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (supreme legislative body of up to 2,500 delegates, some of which are elected by popular vote and some of which are appointed; meets at least yearly) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Council - NA; Assembly - last held 12 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - all 50 elected officials preapproved by President NIYAZOV; most are from the DPT
note: in late 2003, a new law was adopted, reducing the powers of the Majlis and making the Halk Maslahaty the supreme legislative organ; the Halk Maslahaty can now legally dissolve the Majlis, and the president is now able to participate in the Majlis as its supreme leader; the Majlis can no longer adopt or amend the constitution, or announce referendums or its elections; since the president is both the "Chairman for Life" of the Halk Maslahaty and the supreme leader of the Majlis, the 2003 law has the effect of making the president the sole authority of both the executive and legislative branches of government
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]
note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been Gundogar and Erkin; Gundogar was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHUMRADOV until his arrest and imprisonment in the wake of the 25 November 2002 assassination attempt on President NIYAZOV; Erkin is led by former Foreign Minister Abdy KULIEV and is based out of Moscow; the Union of Democratic Forces, a coalition of opposition-in-exile groups, is based in Europe
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mered Bairamovich ORAZOV
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey A. JACOBSON
embassy: 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 774000
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45
FAX: [9] (9312) 39-26-14
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five carpet guls (designs used in producing rugs) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon and five white stars appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe

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   Economy    Turkmenistan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmenistan is largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, making it at one time the world's tenth-largest producer. Poor harvests in recent years have led to a nearly 46% decline in cotton exports. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2003, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by 38% in 2003, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. Overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms. However, Turkmenistan's cooperation with the international community in transporting humanitarian aid to Afghanistan may foreshadow a change in the atmosphere for foreign investment, aid, and technological support. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In particular, the 20% rate of GDP growth is a guess.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $27.88 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $5,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 24.8%
industry: 46.2%
services: 28.9% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.5% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
34.4% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
40.8 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.34 million (1996)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 48%, industry 15%, services 37% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.477 billion
expenditures: $3.908 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, grain; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.18 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.509 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
980 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
20 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
162,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
63,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
273 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.43 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$957 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.355 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
gas 57%, oil 26%, cotton fiber 3%, textiles 2% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Ukraine 39.3%, Italy 18.2%, Iran 14.8%, Turkey 6.5% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.472 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 21.5%, Ukraine 15.3%, Turkey 9.5%, UAE 7.6%, Germany 4.2%, China 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.696 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.4 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$16 million from the US (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen manat (TMM)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
TMM
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen manats per US dollar - 5,200 (2003), 5,200 (2002), 5,200 (2001), 5,200 (2000), 5,200 (1999);note - the official exchange rate has not varied for the last six years; the unofficial rate has fluctuated slightly, hovering around 21,000 manats to the dollar
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Turkmenistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
374,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,200 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poorly developed
domestic: NA
international: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (much programming relayed from Russia and Turkey) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tm
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
524 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Turkmenistan
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,440 km
broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24,000 km
paved: 19,488 km
unpaved: 4,512 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway for Turkmenistan, as is the man-made Kara Kum canal
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 6,634 km; oil 853 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmenbasy
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,873 GRT/8,345 DWT
by type: combination ore/oil 1, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 2 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
69 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 45
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 36 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Turkmenistan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ministry of Defense (Army, Air and Air Defense, Navy, Border Troops, and Internal Troops), National Guard
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,272,436 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,031,806 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 55,866 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$90 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (FY99)

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   Transnational Issues    Turkmenistan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
prolonged regional drought creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; talks resume with Kazakhstan on dividing the seabed in 2004 as both sides anticipate an ICJ decision on contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; demarcation of land boundary with Kazakhstan to commence in 2004
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; small-scale government-run eradication of illicit crops; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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