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  East Timor  
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  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of East Timor

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    East Timor
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Portuguese began to trade with the island of Timor in the early 16th century and colonized it in mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of East Timor. A campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives. On 30 August 1999, in a UN-supervised popular referendum, the people of East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia. During 1999-2001, anti-independence militias - supported by Indonesia - conducted indiscriminate violence. On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state.

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   Geography    East Timor
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
8 50 S, 125 55 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 15,007 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 228 km
border countries: Indonesia 228 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
706 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: NA nm
exclusive economic zone: NA nm
continental shelf: NA nm
exclusive fishing zone: NA nm
extended fishing zone: NA nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mountainous
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m
highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4.71%
permanent crops: 0.67%
other: 94.62% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,065 sq km (est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
floods and landslides are common; earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Timor comes from the Malay word for "East;" the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands

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   People    East Timor
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,019,252
note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 37.8% (male 196,007; female 189,584)
15-64 years: 59.2% (male 308,254; female 295,584)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 14,663; female 15,160) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 20 years
male: 20.1 years
female: 19.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.11% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.46 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.36 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 48.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 65.56 years
male: 63.31 years
female: 67.92 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.7 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Timorese
adjective: Timorese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese minority
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 90%, Muslim 4%, Protestant 3%, Hindu 0.5%, Buddhist, Animist (1992 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English
note: there are about 16 indigenous languages; Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.6% (2002)

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   Government    East Timor
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
conventional short form: East Timor
local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
former: Portuguese Timor
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Dili
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
13 administrative districts; Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Cova-Lima (Suai), Dili, Ermera, Lautem (Los Palos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oecussi (Ambeno), Viqueque
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
28 November 1975 (date of proclamation of independence from Portugal); note - 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of East Timor's independence from Indonesia
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
22 March 2002 (based on the Portuguese model)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
UN-drafted legal system based on Indonesian law (2002)
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO (since 20 May 2002); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto some legislation; he formally used the name Jose Alexander GUSMAO
head of government: Prime Minister Mari Bin Amude ALKATIRI (since 20 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of State
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2007); after the first legislative elections, the leader of the majority party was appointed prime minister by the president, suggesting a precedent for the future
election results: Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO elected president; percent of vote - Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO 82.7%, Francisco Xavier do AMARAL 17.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Parliament (number of seats can vary, minimum requirement of 52 and a maximum of 65 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - for its first term of office, the National Parliament is comprised of 88 members on an exceptional basis
elections: (next to be held August 2006); direct elections for national parliament were never held; elected delegates to the national convention named themselves legislators instead of having elections; hence the exceptional numbers for this term of the national parliament.
election results: percent of vote by party - FRETILIN 57.37%, PD 8.72%, PSD 8.18%, ASDT 7.84%, UDT 2.36%, PNT 2.21%, KOTA 2.13%, PPT 2.01%, PDC 1.98%, PST 1.78%, independents/other 5.42%; seats by party - FRETILIN 55, PD 7, PSD 6, ASDT 6, PDC 2, UDT 2, KOTA 2, PNT 2, PPT 2, UDC/PDC 1, PST 1, PL 1, independent 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice, one judge appointed by the National Parliament and the rest appointed by the Superior Council for the Judiciary
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Associacao Social-Democrata Timorense or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Christian Democratic Party of Timor or PDC [Antonio XIMENES]; Christian Democratic Union of Timor or UDC [Vicente da Silva GUTERRES]; Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; Liberal Party or PL [leader NA]; Maubere Democratic Party or PDM [leader NA]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor or FRETILIN [Lu OLO]; Social Democrat Party of East Timor or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Socialist Party of Timor or PST [leader NA]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) or KOTA [Clementino dos Reis AMARAL]; Timor Democratic Union or UDT [Joao CARRASCALAO]; Timor Labor Party or PTT [Paulo Freitas DA SILVA]; Timorese Nationalist Party or PNT [Abilio ARAUJO]; Timorese Popular Democratic Association or APODETI [Frederico Almeida-Santos DA COSTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
the Popular Council for the Defense of the Democratic Republic of East Timor or CPD-RDTL is the largest political pressure group; it rejects the current government and claims to be the rightful government; it is led by Cristiano DA COSTA, a.k.a. Aitahan MATAK; Kolimau 2000 is another opposition group; leader is Dr. BRUNO (NFI) according to Indonesian press
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AsDB, IBRD, ICCt, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, OPCW, PIF (observer), UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Luis GUTERRES
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: 202 965-1515
FAX: 202 965-1517
consulate(s) general: New York (the ambassador resides in New York) (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Grover Joseph REES
embassy: Vila 10, Avenida de Portugal, Farol, Dili
mailing address: Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250
telephone: (670) 332-4684, 331-3205/3160/3472
FAX: (670) 331-3206
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red, with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; there is a white star in the center of the black triangle

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   Economy    East Timor
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was laid waste by Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled westward. Over the next three years, however, a massive international program, manned by 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, led to substantial reconstruction in both urban and rural areas. By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned. Growth was held back in 2003 by extensive drought and the gradual winding down of the international presence. The country faces great challenges in continuing the rebuilding of infrastructure, strengthening the infant civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the workforce. One promising long-term project is the planned development of oil and gas resources in nearby waters, but the government faces a substantial financing gap over the next several years before these revenues start flowing into state coffers.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $440 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 25.4%
industry: 17.2%
services: 57.4% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
42% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
38 (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8% NA (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50% (including underemployment) (1992 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $36 million
expenditures: $97 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, rice, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.5%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8 million (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, sandalwood, marble; note - the potential for oil and vanilla exports
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$237 million (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mainly food (2001)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.2 billion (1999-2002 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
US dollar (USD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
IDR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
the US dollar is the legal tender
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June

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   Communications    East Timor
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tp
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA

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   Transportation    East Timor
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,800 km
paved: 428 km
unpaved: 3,372 km (1995)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
8 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    East Timor
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
East Timor Defense Force (Forcas de Defesa de Timor-L'este, FDTL): Army, Navy
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
NA (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
NA (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
NA (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.4 million (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA

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   Transnational Issues    East Timor
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey, and delimit the land boundary, but several sections of the boundary especially around the Oekussi enclave remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which may delay decision on the northern maritime boundaries; numbers of East Timor refugees in Indonesia refuse repatriation; the 1999 maritime delimitation established partial maritime boundaries with Australia over part of the Timor Gap but temporary resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area grant Australia a 90% share of exploited gas reserves and hamper creation of a southern maritime boundary with Indonesia
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
NA

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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