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  Sao Tome and Principe  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Sao Tome and Principe

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Sao Tome and Principe
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. Although independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. Though the first free elections were held in 1991, the political environment has been one of continued instability with frequent changes in leadership and coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea is likely to have a significant impact on the country's economy.

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   Geography    Sao Tome and Principe
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the Equator, west of Gabon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 00 N, 7 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,001 sq km
land: 1,001 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
more than five times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
209 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
volcanic, mountainous
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.25%
permanent crops: 48.96%
other: 44.79% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
100 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct volcanoes and both are fairly mountainous

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   People    Sao Tome and Principe
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
181,565 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.7% (male 43,810; female 42,708)
15-64 years: 48.4% (male 42,469; female 45,456)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 3,275; female 3,847) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16.1 years
male: 15.5 years
female: 16.7 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41.36 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 44.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 46.57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 66.63 years
male: 65.11 years
female: 68.21 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Sao Tomean(s)
adjective: Sao Tomean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 80% (Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.3%
male: 85%
female: 62% (1991 est.)

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   Government    Sao Tome and Principe
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
conventional short form: Sao Tome and Principe
local long form: Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe
local short form: Sao Tome e Principe
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Sao Tome
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
2 provinces; Principe, Sao Tome
note: Principe has had self-government since 29 April 1995
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 12 July (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
approved March 1990; effective 10 September 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese legal system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Maria das NEVES (since 7 October 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 July 2001 (next to be held NA July 2006); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president
election results: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president in Sao Tome's third multiparty presidential election; percent of vote - NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (55 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 3 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLSTP 39.6%, Force for Change Democratic Movement 39.4%, Ue-Kedadji coalition 16.2%; seats by party - MLSTP 24, Force for Change Democratic Movement 23, Ue-Kedadji coalition 8
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Renovation Party [Armindo GRACA]; Force for Change Democratic Movement [leader NA]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Carlos NEVES]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Manuel Pinto Da COSTA]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Aldo BANDEIRA]; Ue-Kedadji coalition [leader NA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
Sao Tome and Principe does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by First Secretary Domingos Augusto FERREIRA, located at 400 Park Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10022, telephone [1] (212) 317-0580
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Sao Tome and Principe; the Ambassador to Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Sao Tome and Principe
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small poor island economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa since independence 29 years ago. Cocoa production has substantially declined in recent years because of drought and mismanagement, but strengthening prices helped boost export earnings in 2003. Sao Tome has to import all fuels, most manufactured goods, consumer goods, and a substantial amount of food. Over the years, it has been unable to service its external debt and has had to depend on concessional aid and debt rescheduling. Sao Tome benefited from $200 million in debt relief in December 2000 under the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. Sao Tome's success in implementing structural reforms has been rewarded by international donors, who pledged increased assistance in 2001. Considerable potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The government also has attempted to reduce price controls and subsidies. Sao Tome is optimistic about the development of petroleum resources in its territorial waters in the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea; production could begin as early as 2004.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $214 million (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 19.6%
industry: 17.8%
services: 62.6% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51.6% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
54% NA (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
population mainly engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing
note: shortages of skilled workers
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $38.59 million
expenditures: $42.04 million, including capital expenditures of $54 million (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, copra, cinnamon, pepper, coffee, bananas, papayas, beans; poultry; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
light construction, textiles, soap, beer; fish processing; timber
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.81 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-8 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.479 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa 80%, copra, coffee, palm oil
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Netherlands 41.7%, Canada 16.7%, Belgium 8.3%, Germany 8.3%, Philippines 8.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30.03 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal 52.5%, Germany 11.5%, Italy 6.6%, Belgium 4.9%, Netherlands 4.9% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$318 million (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$200 million in December 2000 under the HIPC program
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
dobra (STD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
STD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
dobras per US dollar - 9,347.58 (2003), 9,088.32 (2002), 8,842.11 (2001), 7,978.17 (2000), 7,118.96 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Sao Tome and Principe
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,800 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate facilities
domestic: minimal system
international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 1 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.st
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,069 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (2003)

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   Transportation    Sao Tome and Principe
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 320 km
paved: 218 km
unpaved: 102 km (1999 est.)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Santo Antonio, Sao Tome
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 79,490 GRT/97,077 DWT
by type: bulk 2, cargo 14, chemical tanker 2, livestock carrier 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: British Virgin Islands 1, Egypt 1, Greece 1, Lebanon 1, Portugal 1, Ukraine 2 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Sao Tome and Principe
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Coast Guard, Presidential Guard, National Guard
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 38,347 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 20,188 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$500,000 (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Sao Tome and Principe
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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