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  Trinidad and Tobago  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Trinidad and Tobago

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Trinidad and Tobago
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The islands came under British control in the 19th century; independence was granted in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.

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   Geography    Trinidad and Tobago
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
11 00 N, 61 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
362 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 14.62%
permanent crops: 9.16%
other: 76.22% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

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   People    Trinidad and Tobago
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,096,585 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 21.4% (male 120,153; female 114,205)
15-64 years: 70.6% (male 403,202; female 370,498)
65 years and over: 8.1% (male 39,762; female 48,765) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 30.4 years
male: 30 years
female: 30.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.71% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.75 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.02 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-10.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24.64 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.28 years
male: 66.86 years
female: 71.82 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.77 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,900 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
East Indian (a local term - primarily immigrants from northern India) 40.3%, black 39.5%, mixed 18.4%, white 0.6%, Chinese and other 1.2%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 29.4%, Hindu 23.8%, Anglican 10.9%, Muslim 5.8%, Presbyterian 3.4%, other 26.7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 99.1%
female: 98% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Trinidad and Tobago
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Port-of-Spain
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
31 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 August 1976
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term; election last held 14 February 2003 (next to be held in 2008); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 43%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; members appointed by the president for a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 7 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2007)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 55.5%, UNC 44.5%; seats by party - PNM 20, UNC 16
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 15 members serving four-year terms
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Court of Appeals the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [leader NA]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; Team Unity or TUN [Ramesh MAHARAJ]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Marina Annette VALERE
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Roy L. AUSTIN
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6372 through 6376, 622-6176
FAX: [1] (868) 628-5462
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side

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   Economy    Trinidad and Tobago
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago, the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from low inflation and a growing trade surplus. Prospects for growth in 2004 are good as prices for oil, petrochemicals, and liquified natural gas are expected to remain high, and foreign direct investment continues to grow to support expanded capacity in the energy sector. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $10.52 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $9,500 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 49%
services: 48.4% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
21% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.8% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
590,000 (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 9.5%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, construction and utilities 12.4%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.4% (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.663 billion
expenditures: $2.51 billion, including capital expenditures of $117.3 million (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55.9% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, sugarcane, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.7% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.315 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.943 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
136,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
990 million bbl (1 January 2004)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.76 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.79 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
589 billion cu m (1 January 2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$954 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.9 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 63.4%, Jamaica 5.6%, France 3.2% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.917 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 31.8%, Venezuela 13.7%, Germany 6.6%, Brazil 5.5%, UK 5.1%, Japan 4.3% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.477 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.608 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$24 million (1999 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
TTD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.2929 (2003), 6.2487 (2002), 6.2332 (2001), 6.2998 (2000), 6.2989 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 October - 30 September

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   Communications    Trinidad and Tobago
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
325,100 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
361,900 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: NA
international: country code - 1-868; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 4, FM 18, shortwave 0 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tt
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,003 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
138,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Trinidad and Tobago
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (1999 est.)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 253 km; gas 1,117 km; oil 478 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Pointe-a-Pierre, Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain, Scarborough, Tembladora
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,178 GRT/3,633 DWT
by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, short-sea/passenger 1
foreign-owned: United States 1
registered in other countries: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
6 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Trinidad and Tobago
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force: Ground Force, Coast Guard, and Air Wing
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 326,447 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 232,234 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$66.7 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.6% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Trinidad and Tobago
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Barbados will assert its claim before UNCLOS that the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into its waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to challenge this boundary as it may extend into its waters as well
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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