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Map of Sweden

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Sweden
Background:
Definition Field Listing
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.

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   Geography    Sweden
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.41 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.54%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.45% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

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   People    Sweden
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,986,400 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.5% (male 807,193; female 762,882)
15-64 years: 65.2% (male 2,974,107; female 2,886,840)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 668,719; female 886,659) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40.3 years
male: 39.2 years
female: 41.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.46 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.38 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 80.3 years
male: 78.12 years
female: 82.62 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.66 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,300 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous population: Swedes and Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish
note: small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1979 est.)
male: NA
female: NA

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   Government    Sweden
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Stockholm
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Flag Day, 6 June
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1975
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the Parliament; election last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 39.8%, Moderates 15.2%, Liberal Party 13.3%, Christian Democrats 9.1%, Left Party 8.3%, Center Party 6.1%, Greens 4.6%; seats by party - Social Democrats 144, Moderates 55, Liberal Party 48, Christian Democrats 33, Left Party 30, Center Party 22, Greens 17
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jan ELIASSON
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles A. HEIMBOLD, Jr.
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

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   Economy    Sweden
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and 2% of the jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantial budgetary surplus in 2001, which was cut by more than half in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, declining revenue, and increased spending. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) is focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth remained sluggish in 2003. On September 14, 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system, concerned about the impact on democracy and sovereignty.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $238.3 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $26,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2%
industry: 29%
services: 69% (2001)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25 (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.449 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 2%, industry 24%, services 74% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $177.7 billion
expenditures: $176.9 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51.8% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
152.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
134.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
18.45 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
11.14 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
328,600 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
203,700 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
553,100 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
949 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
968 million cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19.56 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$102.8 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 11.5%, Germany 10%, Norway 8.4%, UK 7.8%, Denmark 6.4%, Finland 5.7%, Netherlands 4.9%, France 4.9%, Belgium 4.5% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$83.27 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 18.7%, Denmark 9%, UK 8%, Norway 8%, Netherlands 6.8%, Finland 5.6%, France 5.5%, Belgium 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19.99 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$66.5 billion (1994)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish krona (SEK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SEK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish kronor per US dollar - 8.0853 (2003), 9.7371 (2002), 10.3291 (2001), 9.1622 (2000), 8.2624 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Sweden
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,579,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.949 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.se
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
945,221 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.125 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Sweden
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11,481 km
standard gauge: 11,481 km 1.435-m gauge (7,527 km electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 212,402 km
paved: 166,523 km (including 1,499 km of expressways)
unpaved: 45,879 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
2,052 km
note: navigable to small steamers and barges
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 798 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Hudiksvall, Kalmar, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Solvesborg, Stockholm, Sundsvall
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 178 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 2,702,763 GRT/1,884,570 DWT
by type: bulk 7, cargo 36, chemical tanker 31, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, petroleum tanker 25, roll on/roll off 39, short-sea/passenger 8, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 23
foreign-owned: Denmark 12, Finland 10, Germany 3, Italy 7, Japan 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 12, Russia 1
registered in other countries: 154 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
255 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 155
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 82
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 36 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 100
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 90 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Sweden
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Royal Navy, Air Force (Flygvapnet)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age; conscripts serve seven to 15 months depending on their role; after completing their initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until the age of 47 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,082,776 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,821,394 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 56,859 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.395 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (FY01)

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   Transnational Issues    Sweden
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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