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Map of Sudan

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Sudan
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan has been embroiled in a civil war for all but 10 years of this period (1972-82). The wars are rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. Since 1983, the war and war- and famine-related effects have led to more than 2 million deaths and over 4 million people displaced. The ruling regime is a mixture of military elite and an Islamist party that came to power in a 1989 coup. Some northern opposition parties have made common cause with the southern rebels and entered the war as a part of an anti-government alliance. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-03 with the signing of several accords, including a cease-fire agreement.

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   Geography    Sudan
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,505,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
water: 129,810 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
853 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.83%
permanent crops: 0.18%
other: 92.99% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
19,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

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   People    Sudan
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
39,148,162 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.7% (male 8,730,609; female 8,358,569)
15-64 years: 54.1% (male 10,588,634; female 10,571,199)
65 years and over: 2.3% (male 490,869; female 408,282) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17.9 years
male: 17.7 years
female: 18.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.64% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35.79 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 64.05 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 64.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 58.13 years
male: 56.96 years
female: 59.36 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.97 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.6% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
450,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,000 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of "Arabization" in process
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.1%
male: 71.8%
female: 50.5% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Sudan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
authoritarian regime - ruling military junta took power in 1989; government is run by an alliance of the military and the National Congress Party (NCP), formerly the National Islamic Front (NIF), which espouses an Islamist platform
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President Moses MACHAR (since 12 February 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 13-23 December 2000 (next to be held NA)
election results: Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair election
note: Lt. Gen. al-BASHIR assumed supreme executive power in 1989 and retained it through several transitional governments in the early and mid-1990s before being popularly elected for the first time in March 1996
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (360 seats; 270 popularly elected, 90 elected by supra assembly of interest groups known as National Congress; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)
election results: NCP 355, others 5
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
the government allows political "associations" under a 1998 law revised in 2000; to obtain government approval parties must accept the constitution and refrain from advocating or using violence against the regime; approved parties include the National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR], Popular National Congress or PNC [Hassan al-TURABI], and over 20 minor, pro-government parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG]; Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires, Ad Interim Khidir Haroun AHMED (since April 2001)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Gerard M. GALLUCCI
embassy: Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum
mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (11) 774611 or 774700
FAX: [249] (11) 774137
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

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   Economy    Sudan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 6.1% in 2003. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force and contributing 39% of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - including the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $70.95 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 38.7%
industry: 20.3%
services: 41% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.8% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11 million (1996 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.7% (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.402 billion
expenditures: $2.546 billion, including capital expenditures of $304 million (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
87% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.389 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.222 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
209,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
631.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
99.11 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-718 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.45 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 25%, Saudi Arabia 22.2%, UAE 5.3%, Germany 4.7% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.383 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 20.1%, Saudi Arabia 7.6%, France 6.2%, UK 5.5%, India 5.3%, Germany 5%, Australia 4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$847.2 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16.09 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$172 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
SDD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 260.983 (2003), 263.306 (2002), 258.702 (2001), 257.122 (2000), 252.55 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Sudan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
900,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
650,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sd
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
300,000 (2003)

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   Transportation    Sudan
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,978 km
narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km .600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
5,310 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 156 km; oil 2,297 km; refined products 810 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Juba, Khartoum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule, Port Sudan, Sawakin
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 20,466 GRT/26,973 DWT
by type: livestock carrier 1, roll on/roll off 2
registered in other countries: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
63 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 51
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 10 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Sudan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF), Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 9,339,775 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,743,783 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 442,242 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$581 million (2001 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.5% (1999)

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   Transnational Issues    Sudan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the north-south civil war has affected Sudan's neighbors by drawing them into the fighting and by forcing them to provide shelter to refugees, to contend with infiltration by rebel groups, and to serve as mediators; Sudan has provided shelter to Ugandan refugees and cover to Lord's Resistance Army soldiers; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia have been delayed by fighting in Sudan; Kenya's administrative boundary still extends into the Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is economically developing and currently effectively administers the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; Sudan has pledged to work with the Central African Republic to stem violent skirmishes over water and grazing among related pastoral populations along the border

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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