Top banner
ZL's Geographycards

         
  Rwanda  
Flag of Rwanda
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

Here is some information about Rwanda . Any info you have on Rwanda will come in handy when you go there. You really need to absorb the info on this page before going to Rwanda .

Detailed and accurate educational information about every country in the world. Important resource for kids and adults who want to know more about geography. If you are interested in geography you should also take a look at this educational geography card game for all ages.  


Country map showing major cities and other features.


Map of Rwanda

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Rwanda
Background:
Definition Field Listing
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in August and September 2003, respectively - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output and to foster reconciliation. A series of massive population displacements, a nagging Hutu extremist insurgency, and Rwandan involvement in two wars over the past four years in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts.

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Geography    Rwanda
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,948 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 40.54%
permanent crops: 12.16%
other: 47.3% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
40 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   People    Rwanda
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,954,013
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 1,690,122; female 1,674,147)
15-64 years: 55% (male 2,178,956; female 2,194,526)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 85,472; female 130,790) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.2 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.4 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.82% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40.01 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.86 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 101.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 106.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 96.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 39.18 years
male: 38.43 years
female: 39.96 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.55 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.4%
male: 76.3%
female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
People - note:
Definition Field Listing
Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Government    Rwanda
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Rwandese Republic
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic; presidential, multiparty system
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Kigali
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 prefectures (in French - prefectures, singular - prefecture; in Kinyarwanda - plural - NA, singular - prefegitura); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
a new constitution was adopted 26 May 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held NA 2008)
election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (53 seats; members elected by direct vote)
elections: last held 29 September 2003 (next to be held NA)
election results: seats by party under the Arusha peace accord - RPF 40, PSD 7, PL 6
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; communal courts; appeals courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA ]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR (officially banned) [Celestin KABANDA]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Prosper HIGIRO]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned) [Pasteur BIZIMUNGU and Charles NTAKARUTINKA]; Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Zac NSENGA
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret K. McMILLION
embassy: #337 Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03
FAX: [250] 57 2128
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Economy    Rwanda
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa; landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded, and inflation has been curbed. Export earnings, however, have been hindered by low beverage prices, depriving the country of much needed hard currency. Attempts to diversify into non-traditional agriculture exports such as flowers and vegetables have been stymied by a lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food to be imported. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and was approved for IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in late 2000. But Kigali's high defense expenditures cause tension between the government and international donors and lending agencies.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $10.11 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,300 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 40.7%
industry: 21.5%
services: 37.8% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
60% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 24.2% (1985)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
28.9 (1985)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.6 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 90%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $365.9 million
expenditures: $402.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
96.78 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
140 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
50 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,300 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-163 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$73.33 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia 38%, Germany 4.4%, China 3.8% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$245.8 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Kenya 24%, Germany 7.7%, Belgium 6.6%, France 5.1% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$215 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.3 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$372.9 million (1999)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Rwandan franc (RWF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
RWF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Rwandan francs per US dollar - 537.658 (2003), 476.327 (2002), 442.801 (2001), 389.696 (2000), 333.942 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Communications    Rwanda
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
134,000
note: Rwanda has mobile cellular service between Kigali and several prefecture capitals (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the prefectures by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 3 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters and the third FM program is a 24 hour BBC program), shortwave 1 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.rw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,495 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,000 (2002)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Transportation    Rwanda
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,000 km
paved: 996 km
unpaved: 11,004 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
9 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2003 est.)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Military    Rwanda
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Rwandan Defense Forces (Army, Air Forces)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,973,713 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,004,296 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$47.7 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2003)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Transnational Issues    Rwanda
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tutsi, Hutu, Hema, Lendu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources - government heads pledge to end conflicts, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


Bottom Banner