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  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Romania

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Romania
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 under the new name of Romania. The country gained full independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories following the conflict. In 1940, it allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996, when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of centrist parties. Currently, the Social Democratic Party forms a nominally minority government, which governs with the support of the opposition Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. Bucharest must address rampant corruption, while invigorating lagging economic and democratic reforms, before it can achieve its hope of joining the European Union. Romania did join NATO in March of 2004.

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   Geography    Romania
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
225 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 40.82%
permanent crops: 2.25%
other: 56.93% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
28,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine

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   People    Romania
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,355,551 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.2% (male 1,861,801; female 1,770,746)
15-64 years: 69.4% (male 7,712,612; female 7,791,900)
65 years and over: 14.4% (male 1,330,994; female 1,887,498) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36.1 years
male: 34.7 years
female: 37.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.11% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.69 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.69 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 27.24 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.41 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.12 years
male: 67.63 years
female: 74.82 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.35 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
350 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.7% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Romania
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bucharest
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
8 December 1991; revision came into force 29 October 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held 28 November 2004 [first round] and 12 December 2004 [second round]); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held 28 November 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held 28 November 2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR (now PSD) 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PSD 65, PRM 36, PNL 13, UDMR 12, PD 9, independents 5; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR (now PSD) 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PSD 171, PRM 69, PD 29, PNL 27, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18, independents 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Party or PD [Traian BASESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Theodor STOLOJAN]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Adrian NASTASE], formerly known as the Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Jack Dyer CROUCH II
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 210-4042
FAX: [40] (21) 210-0395
branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

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   Economy    Romania
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Romania began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Despite the global slowdown in 2001-02, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption have kept growth above 4%. An IMF Standby Agreement, signed in 2001, has been accompanied by slow but palpable gains in privatization, deficit reduction, and the curbing of inflation. The IMF Board approved Romania's completion of the standby agreement in October 2003, the first time Romania has successfully concluded an IMF agreement since the 1989 revolution. Nonetheless, recent macroeconomic gains have done little to address Romania's widespread poverty, while corruption and red tape hinder foreign investment.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $155 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $7,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 13.1%
industry: 38.1%
services: 48.8% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.5% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
44.5% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 25% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31.1 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.3% (2003)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.28 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 41.4%, industry 27.3%, services 31.3% (2000)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.2% (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $17.06 billion
expenditures: $18.38 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.5% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2003)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.86 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46.1 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
400 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
127,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
215,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.055 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.7 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
111.1 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-3.368 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$17.63 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 23.5%, Germany 15.5%, France 7.3%, UK 6.2%, Austria 4.4%, Turkey 4.3%, US 4.1% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$22.17 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, basic metals, agricultural products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 19.8%, Germany 17.5%, France 7.5%, Russia 7.1%, Austria 5.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.37 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.34 billion (2003 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
leu (ROL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
ROL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lei per US dollar - 33,200.1 (2003), 33,055.4 (2002), 29,060.8 (2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Romania
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.3 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.9 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving
domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service
international: country code - 40; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ro
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,807 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4 million (2003)

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   Transportation    Romania
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)
standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 198,603 km
paved: 98,308 km (including 113 km of expressways)
unpaved: 100,295 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,724 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 3,508 km; oil 2,427 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 395,350 GRT/510,232 DWT
by type: bulk 7, cargo 26, container 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 4, rail car carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4
foreign-owned: Greece 1, Italy 2
registered in other countries: 39 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
62 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 23 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Romania
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Civil Defense
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,952,834 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,007,375 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 163,577 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$985 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.47% (2002)

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   Transnational Issues    Romania
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
has not resolved claims to Ukrainian-administered Zmyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary despite ongoing talks based on 1997 friendship treaty to find a solution in two years; Hungary amended status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Romania, who had objected to the law
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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