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  Papua New Guinea  
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  Geography
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Map of Papua New Guinea

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Papua New Guinea
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.

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   Geography    Papua New Guinea
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
6 00 S, 147 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 820 km
border countries: Indonesia 820 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
5,152 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.46%
permanent crops: 1.44%
other: 98.1% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast

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   People    Papua New Guinea
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,420,280 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 38.3% (male 1,053,940; female 1,019,492)
15-64 years: 58% (male 1,622,124; female 1,519,104)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 96,638; female 108,982) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 20.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.3% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.52 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 53.15 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57.39 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 64.56 years
male: 62.41 years
female: 66.81 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
600 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region
note: 715 indigenous languages -- many unrelated
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.6%
male: 71.1%
female: 57.7% (2002)

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   Government    Papua New Guinea
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Port Moresby
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
16 September 1975
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by governor general Sir Paulius MATANE (since 29 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Michael SOMARE (since 2 August 2002); deputy prime minister (vacant)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the National Executive Council; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Parliament - sometimes referred to as the House of Assembly (109 seats, 89 elected from open electorates and 20 from provincial electorates; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 15-29 June 2002 and April and May 2003; completed in May 2003 (voting in the Southern Highlands was not completed during the June 2002 election period); next to be held not later than June 2007
election results: percent of vote by party - National Alliance 18%, URP 13%, PDM 12%, PPP 8%, Pangu 6%, PAP 5%, PLP 4%, others 34%; seats by party - National Alliance 19, UPR 14, PDM 13, PPP 8, Pangu 6, PAP 5, PLP 4, others 40; note - association with political parties is fluid (2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Party [Muki TARANUPI, party leader]; Melanesian Alliance Party or MAP [Bernard NAROKOBI, party leader]; National Alliance Party or NA [Michael SOMARE, party leader; George MANOA, party president]; National Party [John MUNNULL, party leader]; Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU [Rabbie NAMALU, party leader]; Papua New Guinea National Party [Robert LAK, party leader]; People's Action Party or PAP [Moses MALADINA, party leader]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sir Mekere MORAUTA, party leader]; People's Labor Party or PLP [Peter YAMA, party leader]; People's National Congress or PNC [Bill SKATE, party leader]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Andrew BAING, party leader]; Pipol's First Party [Luther WENGE, party leader]; Rural People's Party [Peter NAMUS, party leader]; United Resources Party or URP [Tim NEVILLE, party leader] (2003)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, APEC, ARF, AsDB, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Evan Jeremy PAKI
chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert W. FITTS
embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby
mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby PI, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered

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   Economy    Papua New Guinea
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including oil, copper, and gold, account for 72% of export earnings. The economy has faltered over the past four years. Former Prime Minister Mekere MORAUTA had tried to restore integrity to state institutions, to stabilize the kina, restore stability to the national budget, to privatize public enterprises where appropriate, and to ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville. The government has had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Challenges face Prime Minister Michael SOMARE, including curbing inflation, gaining further investor confidence, continuing efforts to privatize government assets, maintaining the support of members of Parliament, and balancing relations with Australia, the former colonial ruler.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $11.48 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 34%
industry: 37.7%
services: 28.3% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.9% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
37% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
50.9 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.25 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 85%, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $954.1 million
expenditures: $996.8 million, including capital expenditures of $344 million (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
72.4% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels, tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production; construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (FY01/02 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.496 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.391 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
67,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
345.2 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
385.5 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.938 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 27%, Japan 7.3%, China 5.8% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$967 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Australia 44.3%, Singapore 20.5%, New Zealand 7.7%, China 4.9% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$510.5 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.909 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$400 million (1999 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
kina (PGK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
PGK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
kina per US dollar - 3.5635 (2003), 3.8952 (2002), 3.3887 (2001), 2.7822 (2000), 2.5708 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Papua New Guinea
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: services are adequate and being improved; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services
domestic: mostly radiotelephone
international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (all in the Port Moresby area)
note: additional stations at Mt. Hagen, Goroka, Lae, and Rabaul are planned (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.pg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
389 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
75,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Papua New Guinea
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 19,600 km
paved: 686 km
unpaved: 18,914 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
10,940 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
oil 264 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Kieta, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 47,586 GRT/60,934 DWT
by type: bulk 1, cargo 12, chemical tanker 1, combination ore/oil 2, container 1, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: Singapore 2, United Kingdom 6
registered in other countries: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
559 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 538
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 62
under 914 m: 466 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Papua New Guinea
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Papua New Guinea Defense Force: Ground Force, Maritime Operations Element, and Air Operations Element
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,403,467 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 775,064 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16.9 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (FY02)

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   Transnational Issues    Papua New Guinea
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
seeks assistance from Australia to control illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including smuggling, drug trafficking, and Indonesian squatters and secessionists

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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