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  Geography
  People
  Government
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  Transnational Issues

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Map of Pakistan

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Pakistan
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved. A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but recent discussions and confidence-building measures may be a start toward lessened tensions.

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   Geography    Pakistan
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,046 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 27.87%
permanent crops: 0.87%
other: 71.26% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
180,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

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   People    Pakistan
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
159,196,336 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 40.2% (male 32,919,441; female 31,058,929)
15-64 years: 55.8% (male 45,381,469; female 43,377,613)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,123,594; female 3,335,290) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19.4 years
male: 19.2 years
female: 19.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.98% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.22 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 74.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 74 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 62.61 years
male: 61.69 years
female: 63.58 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.29 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
78,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,500 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 45.7%
male: 59.8%
female: 30.6% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Pakistan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Islamabad
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
14 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored 31 December 2002
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 January 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies
chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the Prime Minister
elections: the president is elected by Parliament for a five-year term; note - in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years (next to be held NA 2007); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (next to be held NA 2007)
election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 August 2004 with 191 of the votes
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats - formerly 87; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve four-year terms; and the National Assembly (342 seats - formerly 217; 60 seats represent women; 10 seats represent minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 24 and 27 February 2003 (next to be held by February 2007); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2006)
election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 40, PPPP 11, MMA 21, MQM/A 6, PML/N 4, NA 3, PML/F 1, PkMAP 2, ANP 2, PPP/S 2, JWP 1, BNP-Awami 1, BNP-Mengal 1, BNM/H 1, independents 4; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM/A 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, PAT 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, MQM/H 1, PkMAP 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO [leader NA]; Millat Party or MP [Farooq LEGHARI]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muhajir Quami Movement, Haqiqi faction or MQM/H [Afaq AHMAD]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [leader NA]; National Alliance or NA [Farooq Ahmad Khan LEGHARI]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed Afzal KHAN]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Democratic Party or PDP [Mehbooba Mufti SAYEED]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League, Quaid-l-Azam faction or PML/Q [Chaudhry Shujjat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim League, Zia-ul-HAQ or PML/Z [Ejaz ul-Haq]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's Party/Sherpao or PPP/S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Amin FAHIM]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AsDB, C (suspended), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ashraf Jehangir QAZI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-3277
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York, and Boston
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 2080-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s): Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

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   Economy    Pakistan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since late 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last two years. The government has made substantial inroads in macroeconomic reform since 2000, although progress on more politically sensitive reforms has slowed. For example, in the third and final year of its $1.3 billion IMF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, Islamabad has continued to require waivers for energy sector reforms. While long-term prospects remain uncertain, given Pakistan's low level of development, medium-term prospects for job creation and poverty reduction are the best in nearly a decade. Islamabad has raised development spending from about 2% of GDP in the 1990s to 4% in 2003, a necessary step towards reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. GDP growth is heavily dependent on rain-fed crops, and last year's end to a four-year drought should support moderate agricultural growth for the next few years. Foreign exchange reserves continued to reach new levels in 2003, supported by robust export growth and steady worker remittances.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $318 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 23.3%
industry: 23.5%
services: 53.2% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.9% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
41 (FY98/99)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43.98 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 44%, industry 17%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.7% plus substantial underemployment (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $12.08 billion
expenditures: $15.41 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
72.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.6% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
66.96 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62.27 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62,870 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
365,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
297.1 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m NA (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
695.6 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.358 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 22.6%, UAE 9.4%, UK 6.9%, Germany 5.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.2%, Hong Kong 4.2% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.51 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UAE 11.6%, China 11.5%, Saudi Arabia 10.5%, Kuwait 6.4%, Japan 6.3%, US 5.8%, Germany 4.4%, Malaysia 4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.67 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$33.54 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.4 billion (FY01/02)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
PKR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 57.752 (2003), 59.7238 (2002), 61.9272 (2001), 53.6482 (2000), 49.1183 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June

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   Communications    Pakistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,982,800 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,624,800 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the domestic system is mediocre, but improving; service is adequate for government and business use, in part because major businesses have established their own private systems; since 1988, the government has promoted investment in the national telecommunications system on a priority basis, significantly increasing network capacity; despite major improvements in trunk and urban systems, telecommunication services are still not readily available to the majority of the rural population
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 27, FM 1, shortwave 21 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
22 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.pk
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,124 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Pakistan
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 254,410 km
paved: 109,396 km (including 339 km of expressways)
unpaved: 145,014 km (1999)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 9,945 km; oil 1,821 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 329,486 GRT/512,506 DWT
by type: cargo 11, container 2, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 16 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
129 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 91
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 19 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
15 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Pakistan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 39,793,586 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 24,355,985 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 1,891,101 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.7 billion (FY02/03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (FY02/03)

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   Transnational Issues    Pakistan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Kashmir remains the world's largest and most highly militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, and Northern Areas), but recent discussions and confidence-building measures among the parties are beginning to defuse tensions; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to China in 1965 boundary agreement; disputes with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Sir Creek Estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; despite largely successful UN efforts at voluntary repatriation, thousands of Afghan refugees continue to reside in Pakistan; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to control the border with Afghanistan to stem organized terrorist and other illegal cross-border activities; regular meetings with Afghan and coalition allies aim to resolve periodic claims of boundary encroachments
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
opium poppy cultivation practically eliminated; key transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western markets; Afghan narcotics continue to transit Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Balochistan Province, and Karachi; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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