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  Mozambique  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Mozambique

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Mozambique
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992. Heavy flooding in both 1999 and 2000 severely hurt the economy. Political stability and sound economic policies have encouraged recent foreign investment.

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   Geography    Mozambique
Location:
Definition Field Listing
South-eastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical to subtropical
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.1%
permanent crops: 0.3%
other: 94.6% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods occur in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

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   People    Mozambique
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18,811,731
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.6% (male 4,126,178; female 4,074,759)
15-64 years: 53.6% (male 4,944,416; female 5,145,167)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 215,418; female 305,793) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.2 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.6 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.22% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.06 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.86 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 137.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 142.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 131.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 37.1 years
male: 37.83 years
female: 36.34 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, numerous other indigenous languages, Portuguese (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Mozambique
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Maputo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
30 November 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee on 4 November 1986 (reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133, Renamo-UE 117
note: Renamo-UE ran as a multiparty coalition; none of the other opposition parties received the 5% required to win parliamentary seats; in September 2000, Renamo-UE member Raul DOMINGOS was expelled from the party; he continues to hold his parliamentary seat as an independent
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISET, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

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   Economy    Mozambique
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-03. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the MOZAL aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date has increased export earnings. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing should further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $21.23 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20.1%
industry: 27.3%
services: 52.7% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
47.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
39.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21% (1997 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.089 billion
expenditures: $1.269 billion, including capital expenditures of $479.4 million (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.193 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.39 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
5.8 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
500 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-566 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$795 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Belgium 26.5%, South Africa 14.6%, Italy 9.8%, Spain 9.6%, Germany 8.5%, Zimbabwe 4.8% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.142 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 26.7%, Australia 9.3%, US 3.9% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$990 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$966 million (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$632.8 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
metical (MZM)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MZM
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
meticais per US dollar - 23,782.3 (2003), 23,678 (2002), 20,703.6 (2001), 15,447.1 (2000), 13,028.6 (1999)
note: effective October 2000, the exchange rate is determined as the weighted average of buying and selling exchange rates of all transactions of commercial banks and stock exchanges with the public
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Mozambique
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
83,700 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
428,900 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 16 telephones for each 1,000 persons)
domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,249 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Mozambique
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
3,750 km (navigable routes)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 189 km; refined products 292 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,125 GRT/7,024 DWT
by type: cargo 3
foreign-owned: Belgium 2 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
158 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 136
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 87 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Mozambique
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special Forces
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 4,335,294 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,485,197 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$101.3 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Mozambique
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

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