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  Geography
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  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Mexico

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Mexico
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation continues to make an impressive recovery. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that the opposition defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) was sworn in on 1 December 2000 as the first chief executive elected in free and fair elections.

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   Geography    Mexico
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the US
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
23 00 N, 102 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
North America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,972,550 sq km
land: 1,923,040 sq km
water: 49,510 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,353 km
border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
9,330 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical to desert
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 12.99%
permanent crops: 1.31%
other: 85.7% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
65,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico

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   People    Mexico
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
104,959,594 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 31.6% (male 16,913,290; female 16,228,552)
15-64 years: 62.9% (male 31,975,391; female 34,090,440)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 2,618,713; female 3,133,208) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.6 years
male: 23.7 years
female: 25.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.44 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.73 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-4.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 21.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.94 years
male: 72.18 years
female: 77.83 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.49 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.2%
male: 94%
female: 90.5% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Mexico
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Mexico (Distrito Federal)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
16 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
5 February 1917
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 December 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Vicente FOX Quesada (since 1 December 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2006)
election results: Vicente FOX Quesada elected president; percent of vote - Vicente FOX Quesada (PAN) 42.52%, Francisco LABASTIDA Ochoa (PRI) 36.1%, Cuauhtemoc CARDENAS Solorzano (PRD) 16.64%, other 4.74%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Federal Chamber of Deputies or Camara Federal de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are directly elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote, also for three-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 2 July 2000 for all of the seats (next to be held NA 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 July 2003 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 60, PAN 46, PRD 16, PVEM 5, unassigned 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 222, PAN 151, PRD 95, PVEM 17, PT 6, CD 5, unassigned 4; note - special elections were held in December 2003; the PRI and the PRD each won one seat and were each assigned one additional proportional representation seat
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Convergence for Democracy or CD [Dante DELGADO Ranauro]; Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI [Roberto MADRAZO Pintado]; Mexican Green Ecological Party or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party or PAN [Luis Felipe BRAVO Mena]; Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD [Leonel GODOY]; Workers Party or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants or CROC; Roman Catholic Church
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, BCIE, BIS, Caricom (observer), CDB, CE (observer), EBRD, FAO, G-3, G-6, G-15, G-19, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOVIC, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Carlos Alberto de ICAZA Gonzalez
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Indianapolis (Indiana), Kansas City (Missouri), Las Vegas, McAllen (Texas), Omaha, Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Presidio (Texas), Raleigh, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson, Yuma (Arizona)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio O. GARZA
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-0900
telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX: [52] (55) 5080-2005, 5080-2834
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Tijuana
consulate(s): Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Nuevo Laredo, Nogales
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak) is centered in the white band

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   Economy    Mexico
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Mexico has a free market economy with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is one-fourth that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Real GDP growth was a weak -0.3% in 2001, 0.9% in 2002, and 1.2% in 2003, with the US slowdown the principal cause. Mexico implemented free trade agreements with Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and the European Free Trade Area in 2001, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. The government is cognizant of the need to upgrade infrastructure, modernize the tax system and labor laws, and provide incentives to invest in the energy sector, but progress is slow.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $941.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $9,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 26.4%
services: 69.6% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
40% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 35.6% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
53.1 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.11 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 18%, industry 24%, services 58% (2003)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.3% plus underemployment of perhaps 25% (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $148.3 billion
expenditures: $152.4 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.1% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-0.7% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
198.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
186.7 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
77 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
2.068 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.59 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.507 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.881 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
374,700 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.11 billion bbl (1 January 2003)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.87 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.84 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
254 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.967 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
969.2 billion cu m (1 January 2003)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-9.15 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$164.8 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 87.6%, Canada 1.8%, Germany 1.2% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$168.9 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 61.8%, China 5.5%, Japan 4.5% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$59.02 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$159.8 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$1.166 billion (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Mexican peso (MXN)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MXN
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Mexican pesos per US dollar - 10.789 (2003), 9.656 (2002), 9.3423 (2001), 9.4556 (2000), 9.5604 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Mexico
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,958,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.125 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: low telephone density with about 15.2 main lines per 100 persons; privatized in December 1990; the opening to competition in January 1997 improved prospects for development, but Telemex remains dominant
domestic: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
international: country code - 52; satellite earth stations - 32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations; linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections; high capacity Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Morocco, Spain, and Italy (1997)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 850, FM 545, shortwave 15 (2003)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
236 (plus repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mx
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,333,406 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.033 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Mexico
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 19,510 km
standard gauge: 19,510 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 329,532 km
paved: 108,087 km (including 6,429 km of expressways)
unpaved: 221,445 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
2,900 km
note: navigable rivers and coastal canals
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 28,200 km; petroleum products 10,150 km; natural gas 13,254 km; petrochemical 1,400 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Acapulco, Altamira, Bahias de Huatulco, Cabo San Lucas, Coatzacoalcos, Dos Bocas, Ensenada, Guaymas, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Puerto Progreso, Puerto Madero, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 649,389 GRT/942,766 DWT
by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, chemical tanker 3, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 5, petroleum tanker 25, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea/passenger 3
foreign-owned: Denmark 1, Germany 1, Greece 1, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 2
registered in other countries: 13 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
1,827 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 231
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 28
1,524 to 2,437 m: 84
914 to 1,523 m: 80
under 914 m: 27 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,596
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 69
914 to 1,523 m: 454
under 914 m: 1,071 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Mexico
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
National Defense Secretariat (Sedena) (including Army and Air Force), Navy Secretariat (including Naval Air and Marines)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (no conscription; all-volunteer force)
note: starting in 2000, females were allowed to volunteer for military service (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 27,374,153 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 19,755,614 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 1,055,368 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5,168.3 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Mexico
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
prolonged drought, population growth, and outmoded practices and infrastructure in the border region have strained water-sharing arrangements with the US; nationals from Central America slip into Mexico seeking work or transit into the US; undocumented Mexican nationals continue to enter the United States
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit cultivation of opium poppy (cultivation in 2001 - 4,400 hectares; potential heroin production - 7 metric tons) and of cannabis (in 2001 - 4,100 hectares); government eradication efforts have been key in keeping illicit crop levels low; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, accounting for about 70 percent of estimated annual cocaine movement to the US; major drug syndicates control majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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