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  Oman  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Oman

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Oman
Background:
Definition Field Listing
In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al Said ousted his father and has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a long-standing political and military relationship with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.

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   Geography    Oman
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
21 00 N, 57 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 212,460 sq km
land: 212,460 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Kansas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,374 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,092 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.12%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 99.74% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
620 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

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   People    Oman
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,903,165
note: includes 577,293 non-nationals (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.4% (male 628,078; female 603,829)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 955,765; female 643,687)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 38,761; female 33,045) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19.3 years
male: 22.1 years
female: 16.4 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.35% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.12 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.91 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.49 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.17 male(s)/female
total population: 1.27 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20.26 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.18 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.85 years
male: 70.66 years
female: 75.16 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,300 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: 75.8%
male: 83.1%
female: 67.2% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Oman
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman
conventional short form: Oman
local long form: Saltanat Uman
local short form: Uman
former: Muscat and Oman
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Muscat
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 regions (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah) and 2 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*, Zufar*; note - the US Embassy in Oman reports that Masqat is a governorate, but this has not been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
in Oman's most recent elections in 2000, limited to approximately 175,000 Omanis chosen by the government to vote in elections for the Majlis al-Shura
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber or Majlis al-Dawla (48 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis al-Shura (83 seats; members elected by limited suffrage for three-year term, however, the monarch makes final selections and can negate election results; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)
elections: last held 4 October 2003 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: NA
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has non-Islamic judges as well as traditional Islamic judges
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Ali bin Thani AL-KHUSSAIBY
chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988
FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Lewis BALTIMORE III
embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat
mailing address: P. O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Al-Sultan Qaboos, Muscat
telephone: [968] 698989, extension 203
FAX: [968] 699771
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band

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   Economy    Oman
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Oman is a well-off middle Eastern economy with large oil and gas resources, a substantial trade surplus, and low inflation. The government is moving ahead with privatization of its utilities, the development of a body of commercial law to facilitate foreign investment, and increased budgetary outlays. Oman continues to liberalize its markets and joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in November 2000. In order to reduce unemployment and limit dependence on foreign countries, the government is encouraging the replacement of expatriate workers with local people, i.e., the process of Omanization. Training in information technology, business management, and English support this objective. Industrial development plans focus on gas resources.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $36.7 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $13,100 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 42.1%
services: 54.8% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-0.3% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
920,000 (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $8.218 billion
expenditures: $7.766 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.6% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.274 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.625 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
963,800 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
53,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.703 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.77 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.34 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.43 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
846.4 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.173 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 22.4%, South Korea 20.5%, China 17.7%, Thailand 12.6%, US 6.7%, Taiwan 5.6% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.659 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UAE 27.4%, Japan 16.8%, UK 7.5%, US 5.6%, Germany 4.5% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.594 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.973 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$76.4 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Omani rial (OMR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
OMR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Omani rials per US dollar - 0.3845 (2003), 0.3845 (2002), 0.3845 (2001), 0.3845 (2000), 0.3845 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Oman
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
233,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
464,900 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable
domestic: open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations
international: country code - 968; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
13 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.om
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
726 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
180,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Oman
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 34,965 km
paved: 9,673 km (including 550 km of expressways)
unpaved: 25,292 km (2001)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 3,599 km; oil 3,187 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 15,430 GRT/6,360 DWT
by type: passenger 2
registered in other countries: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
135 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 129
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 35 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Oman
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Royal Omani Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
14 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 796,792 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 443,006 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 31,274 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$242.07 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.4% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Oman
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
boundary agreement signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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