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Map of Moldova

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Moldova
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.

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   Geography    Moldova
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 55.3%
permanent crops: 10.79%
other: 33.91% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
3,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone

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   People    Moldova
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,446,455 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 20.6% (male 466,485; female 449,645)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 1,478,220; female 1,595,695)
65 years and over: 10.3% (male 169,026; female 287,384) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32.1 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 34.3 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.81 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.76 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 41 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 65.03 years
male: 60.88 years
female: 69.39 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 300 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, Gagauz and other 5.2% (1989 est.)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.6%
female: 98.7% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Moldova
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: none
former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Chisinau
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 counties (judetele, singular - judetul), 1 municipality (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitate teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitate teritoriala)
: counties: Balti, Cahul, Chisinau, Edinet, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca, Tighina, Ungheni
: municipality: Chisinau
: autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
: territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since 29 January 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry TODOROGLO (since 19 April 2001)
cabinet: selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct, popular elections; Parliament's failure to choose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections in February 2001; prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; note - within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance (now Our Moldova Alliance) 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance (now Our Moldova Alliance) 19, PPCD 11
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV]; Communist Party of Moldova or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Our Moldova Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS, Serafim URECHEANU]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Social Liberal Party [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mihail MANOLI
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Heather M. HODGES
embassy: 103 Alexei Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 23-37-72
FAX: [373] (22) 23-30-44
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

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   Economy    Moldova
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000, 6.1% in 2001, 7.2% in 2002, and 6.3% in 2003. Further reforms will come slowly because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $7.792 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 21%
industry: 27%
services: 52% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.2% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
40.6 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.383 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8% (roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad) (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $474.8 million
expenditures: $443.4 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
88.4% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.394 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.216 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
60 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-135 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$790 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 39%, Romania 11.4%, Italy 10.4%, Germany 7.1%, Ukraine 7.1%, Belarus 5.2%, US 4.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.34 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products and fuel 32%, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Ukraine 22%, Russia 13%, Germany 9.7%, Italy 8.3%, Romania 7% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$302.3 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.515 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$100 million (2000)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Moldovan leu (MDL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
MDL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lei per US dollar - 13.9449 (2003), 13.5705 (2002), 12.8651 (2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Moldova
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
706,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
338,200 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some effort to modernize is under way
domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.md
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,984 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
150,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Moldova
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,657 km
paved: 11,012 km
unpaved: 1,645 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
424 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 606 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
24 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 11 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Moldova
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
National Army: Ground Forces, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (12 months of national service required) (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,186,818 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 942,071 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 44,466 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.5 million (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.4% (FY02)

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   Transnational Issues    Moldova
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
difficulties with the Transnistria region complicate controlling border crossing and customs regimes with Ukraine, despite concordance on 2003 delimitation and customs protocols and OSCE assistance
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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