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  Libya  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Libya

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Libya
Background:
Definition Field Listing
From the earliest days of his rule following his 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics. Chadian forces were able to force the Libyans to retreat from the Aozou Strip in 1987. UN sanctions in the 1990s isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Later, when QADHAFI found that he could not easily break free of the sanctions and when he realized that Arab nations were lukewarm to his many unusual political initiatives, he turned his attention to Africa where he achieved mixed success at influence-building. Libyan support for terrorism appears to have decreased after UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. During the 1990s QADHAFI also began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya resolved the Lockerbie case. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction.

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   Geography    Libya
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
25 00 N, 17 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,759,540 sq km
land: 1,759,540 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,348 km
border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,770 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 1.03%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 98.78% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert

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   People    Libya
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,631,585
note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 34.2% (male 983,050; female 941,603)
15-64 years: 61.7% (male 1,794,396; female 1,679,828)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 113,391; female 119,317) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22.4 years
male: 22.5 years
female: 22.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.37% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.17 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.48 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 25.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 76.28 years
male: 74.1 years
female: 78.58 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Libyan(s)
adjective: Libyan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim 97%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.6%
male: 92.4%
female: 72% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Libya
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
conventional short form: Libya
local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma
local short form: none
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Tripoli
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
24 December 1951 (from Italy)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state
head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) Shukri Muhammad GHANIM (since 14 June 2003)
cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress
elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held 2 March 2000 (next to be held NA)
election results: NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
Libya does not have an embassy in the US but maintains an interest section under the protective power of the Unites Arab Emirates Embassy in the US
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US suspended all embassy activities in Tripoli on 2 May 1980, and then resumed embassy activities in February 2004 under the protective power of the US interests section of the Belgian Embassy
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)

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   Economy    Libya
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of GDP. These oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past three years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $35 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 46.1%
services: 45.3% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.8% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.51 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 17%, industry 29%, services 54% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30% (2001)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $10.28 billion
expenditures: $7.86 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.6% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.18 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.77 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.429 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
216,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.75 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.18 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.41 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
770 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.321 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.641 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.32 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, refined petroleum products (1999)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 39.2%, Spain 13.6%, Germany 13.5%, Turkey 6.6%, France 6.1% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.282 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 27.2%, Germany 10.3%, Tunisia 7.7%, UK 6.9%, South Korea 6.3%, France 5.8% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19.78 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.194 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$15 million (2000)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Libyan dinar (LYD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
LYD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Libyan dinars per US dollar - 1.2929 (2003), 1.2707 (2002), 0.6051 (2001), 0.4994 (2000), 0.3936 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Libya
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
750,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 3 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
12 (plus one low-power repeater) (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ly
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
67 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160,000 (2003)

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   Transportation    Libya
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 km
note: Libya is working on 7 lines totaling 2,757 km of 1.435-m gauge track; it hopes to open a 191 km line by the end of 2004 (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 83,200 km
paved: 47,590 km
unpaved: 35,610 km (1999 est.)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 225 km; gas 3,196 km; oil 6,872 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah, Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 129,627 GRT/105,110 DWT
by type: cargo 8, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea/passenger 4
foreign-owned: Algeria 1, Kuwait 1 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
140 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 60
over 3,047 m: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 80
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 18 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Libya
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Armed Peoples on Duty (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,588,533 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 938,196 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 61,828 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.3 billion (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (FY99)

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   Transnational Issues    Libya
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in Niger in currently dormant disputes; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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