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  Liechtenstein  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Liechtenstein

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Liechtenstein
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. Shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering. Liechtenstein has, however, implemented new anti-money-laundering legislation and recently concluded a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US.

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   Geography    Liechtenstein
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 16 N, 9 32 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 34.9 km, Switzerland 41.1 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (doubly landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydroelectric potential, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 75% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

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   People    Liechtenstein
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33,436 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.8% (male 2,950; female 3,014)
15-64 years: 70.5% (male 11,745; female 11,837)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 1,598; female 2,292) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.8 years
male: 38.3 years
female: 39.3 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.86% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.65 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.94 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 79.4 years
male: 75.8 years
female: 83.02 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.51 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Alemannic 86%, Italian, Turkish, and other 14%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2% (June 2002)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
German (official), Alemannic dialect
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

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   Government    Liechtenstein
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
hereditary constitutional monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Vaduz
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman Empire
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Assumption Day, 15 August
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
5 October 1921
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)
head of government: Head of Government Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001) and Deputy Head of Government Rita KIEBER-BECK (since 5 April 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 February 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 49.90%, VU 41.35%, FL 8.71%; seats by party - FBP 13, VU 11, FL 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Patriotic Union (was Fatherland Union) or VU [Heinz FROMMELT]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Johannes MATT]; The Free List or FL [Dr. Pepo FRICK, Elisabeth TELLENBACH-FRICK, Adolf RITTER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WHO (observer), WIPO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE
chancery: 1300 Eye Street NW, Suite 550W, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 216-0460
FAX: [1] (202) 216-0459
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

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   Economy    Liechtenstein
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with its large European neighbors. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $825 million (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $25,000 (1999 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA
industry: 40%
services: NA (1999)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2001)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29,000 of whom 19,000 are foreigners; 13,000 commute from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany to work each day (31 December 2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 1.3%, industry 47.4%, services 51.3% (31 December 2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (September 2002)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $424.2 million
expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1998 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.47 billion (1996)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 62.6% (Germany 24.3%, Austria 9.5%, France 8.9%, Italy 6.6%, UK 4.6%), US 18.9%, Switzerland 15.7%
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$917.3 million (1996)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
agricultural products, raw materials, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU, Switzerland
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$0 (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
none
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Swiss franc (CHF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
CHF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.3467 (2003), 1.5586 (2002), 1.6876 (2001), 1.6888 (2000), 1.5022 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Liechtenstein
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,400 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.li
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,727 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Liechtenstein
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 250 km
paved: 250 km
unpaved: 0 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 20 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
none (2003 est.)

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   Military    Liechtenstein
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of Switzerland

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   Transnational Issues    Liechtenstein
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
has strengthened money-laundering controls, but money laundering remains a concern due to Liechtenstein sophisticated offshore financial services sector

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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