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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Lithuania

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Lithuania
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

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   Geography    Lithuania
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 65,200 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,273 km
border countries: Belarus 502 km, Latvia 453 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
99 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines/Kalnas 292 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
peat, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 45.22%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 53.87% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
90 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

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   People    Lithuania
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,607,899 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.7% (male 309,736; female 294,129)
15-64 years: 68.4% (male 1,202,603; female 1,262,784)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 184,145; female 354,502) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37.4 years
male: 34.8 years
female: 40.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.33% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.49 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.03 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7.13 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 73.46 years
male: 68.22 years
female: 79 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 1,300 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuanian 80.6%, Russian 8.7%, Polish 7%, Belarusian 1.6%, other 2.1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic (primarily), Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, Evangelical Christian Baptist, Muslim, Jewish
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Lithuania
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Premier Algirdas Mykolas BRAZAUSKAS (since 3 July 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the premier
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 13 June 2004 and 27 June 2004; premier appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 8 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Coalition 31.1%, New Union-Social Liberals 19.6%, Liberal Union 17.2%, TS 8.6%, remaining parties all less than 5%; seats by faction - Social Democratic Coalition 51, New Union-Social Liberals 25, United Political Group-Group of Liberals 24, Liberal Democrats 13, Conservatives 9, Farmers and New Democracy Parties 8, Mixed Group 6, independent 1 (four seats unfilled as of 1 June 2003)
note: the voting results from the 2000 elections do not correspond to the make up of the Seimas, which has evolved into a number of factions, each made up of members of several parties
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS, chairman]; Lithuanian Center Union or LCS [Kestutis GLAVECKAS, chairman]; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Kazys BOBELIS]; Lithuanian Farmer's Party or LUP [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS, chairman]; Lithuanian Green Party [Rimantas BRAZIULIS]; Lithuanian Liberal Youth [Neringa MOROZAITE]; Lithuanian National Democratic Party [Vygintas GONTIS]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP, the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP, and New Democracy; Moderate Conservative Union [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Modern Christian Democratic Union [Vytautas BOGUSIS, chairman]; New Democracy and Farmer's Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; New Union-Social Liberals [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Young Lithuania [Arnoldas PLATELIS]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Vygaudas USACKAS
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen D. MULL
embassy: Akmenu 6, 2600 Vilnius
mailing address: American Embassy, Vilnius, PSC 78, Box V, APO AE 09723
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

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   Economy    Lithuania
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has slowly rebounded from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment remains high, still 10.7% in 2003, but is improving. Growing domestic consumption and increased investment have furthered recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and has moved ahead with plans to join the EU. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, is nearing completion. Overall, more than 80% of enterprises have been privatized. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $40.88 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $11,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 6.1%
industry: 31.3%
services: 62.6% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
34 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-1.2% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.642 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 20%, industry 30%, services 50% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.3% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $5.427 billion
expenditures: $5.742 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.6% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.1% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.62 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.683 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
6.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.389 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,594 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
72,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-1.218 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.89 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Switzerland 11.6%, Russia 10.1%, Germany 9.9%, Latvia 9.7%, UK 6.4%, France 5.1%, Denmark 4.7%, Estonia 4.3%, Sweden 4% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.2 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products 21%, machinery and equipment 17%, transport equipment 11%, chemicals 9%, textiles and clothing 9%, metals 5% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 22%, Germany 16.1%, Poland 5.2%, Italy 4.3%, France 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.45 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.671 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$228.5 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
litas (LTL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
LTL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
litai per US dollar - 3.0609 (2003), 3.677 (2002), 4 (2001), 4 (2000), 4 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Lithuania
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
824,200 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,169,900 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: country code - 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
27
note: Lithuania has approximately 27 broadcasting stations, but may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.lt
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
67,769 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
695,700 (2003)

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   Transportation    Lithuania
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,807 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 169 km 0.750-m gauge (all service suspended) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 75,243 km
paved: 68,697 km (including 417 km of expressways)
unpaved: 6,546 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
600 km (perennially navigable)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 1,698 km; oil 331 km; refined products 109 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Butinge, Kaunas, Klaipeda
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 296,856 GRT/317,731 DWT
by type: cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 8, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 2, short-sea/passenger 4
foreign-owned: Denmark 12, Netherlands 1
registered in other countries: 11 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
102 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 14 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 74
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 67 (2003 est.)
   Military    Lithuania
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
National Defense Volunteer Forces (SKAT), Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 943,063 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 738,602 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 28,300 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$230.8 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (FY01)

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   Transnational Issues    Lithuania
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in May 2003, the Russian Parliament ratified the 1997 land and maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, which ratified the treaty in 1999, legalizing limits of former Soviet republic borders; both states also implement a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals transiting Lithuania to and from the Russian Kaliningrad coastal enclave; the Latvian Parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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