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Map of Israel

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Israel
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. On 24 June 2002, US President Bush laid out a "road map" for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which envisions a two-state solution. However, progress toward a permanent status agreement has been undermined by Palestinian-Israeli violence ongoing since September 2000.

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   Geography    Israel
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
31 30 N, 34 45 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20,770 sq km
land: 20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,017 km
border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
273 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16.39%
permanent crops: 4.17%
other: 79.44% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,990 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
there are 242 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (February 2002 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source

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   People    Israel
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,199,008
note: includes about 187,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, more than 5,000 in the Gaza Strip, and fewer than 177,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 26.7% (male 847,591; female 808,399)
15-64 years: 63.4% (male 1,976,539; female 1,954,782)
65 years and over: 9.9% (male 262,781; female 348,916) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 29.2 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 30 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.29% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.45 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.19 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 79.17 years
male: 77.08 years
female: 81.37 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.47 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,400 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Jewish 80.1% (Europe/America-born 32.1%, Israel-born 20.8%, Africa-born 14.6%, Asia-born 12.6%), non-Jewish 19.9% (mostly Arab) (1996 est.)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Jewish 80.1%, Muslim 14.6% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2.1%, other 3.2% (1996 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.3%
female: 93.6% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Israel
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Jerusalem; note - Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Moshe KATSAV (since 31 July 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ariel SHARON (since 7 March 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset
elections: president is largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term; election last held 31 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition; election last held 28 January 2003 (next to be held fall of 2007)
election results: Moshe KATSAV elected president by the 120-member Knesset with a total of 60 votes, other candidate, Shimon PERES, received 57 votes (there were three abstentions); Ariel SHARON continues as prime minister after Likud Party victory in January 2003 Knesset elections; Likud won 38 seats and then formed coalition government with Shinui, the National Religious Party, and the National Union
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Knesset or parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 28 January 2003 (next to be held fall of 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - Likud Party 29.4%, Labor 14.5%, Shinui 12.3%, Shas 8.2%, National Union 5.5%, Meretz 5.2%, United Torah Judaism 4.3%, National Religious Party 4.2%, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality 3.0%, One Nation 2.8%, National Democratic Assembly 2.3%, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya (YBA) 2.2%, United Arab List 2.1%, Green Leaf Party 1.2%, Herut 1.2%, other 1.6%; seats by party - Likud 38, Labor 19, Shinui 15, Shas 11, National Union 7, Meretz 6, National Religious Party 6, United Torah Judaism 5, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality 3, One Nation 3, National Democratic Assembly 3, YBA 2, United Arab List 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (justices appointed for life by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (Hadash) [Muhammad BARAKA]; Green Leaf Party (no longer active) [Boaz WACHTEL and Shlomi SANDAK]; Herut (no longer active) [Michael KLEINER]; Labor Party [Shimon PEREZ]; Likud Party [Ariel SHARON]; Meretz (merged with YAHAD) [Zahava GALON]; National Democratic Assembly (Balad) [Azmi BISHARA]; National Religious Party [Efie EITAM]; National Union (Haichud Haleumi) [Avigdor LIBERMAN] (includes Tekuma Moledet and Yisra'el Beiteinu); One Nation [Amir PERETZ]; Shas [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Shinui [Tommy LAPID]; United Arab List [Abd al-Malik DAHAMSHAH]; United Torah Judaism [Yaakov LITZMAN]; YAHAD [Yossi BEILIN]; Yisra'el Ba'Aliya or YBA (merged with Likud) [Natian SHARANSKY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Israeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Yesha (settler) Council promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem monitors human rights abuses
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel AYALON
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv
mailing address: PSC 98, Box 29, APO AE 09830
telephone: [972] (3) 519-7369/7453/7454/7457/7458/7551/7575
FAX: [972] (3) 516-4390
consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note - an independent US mission, established in 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign government
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

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   Economy    Israel
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Israel has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Israel imports substantial quantities of grain but is largely self-sufficient in other agricultural products. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, which is its major source of economic and military aid. The bitter Israeli-Palestinian conflict; difficulties in the high-technology, construction, and tourist sectors; and fiscal austerity in the face of growing inflation led to small declines in GDP in 2001 and 2002. The economy grew at 1% in 2003, with improvements in tourism and foreign direct investment. In 2004, rising business and consumer confidence - as well as higher demand for Israeli exports - are forecast to boost GDP by 2.5%.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $120.9 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $19,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 37.7%
services: 59.5% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.2% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
18% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 28.3% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
35.5 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.61 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2.6%, manufacturing 20.2%, construction 7.5%, commerce 12.8%, transport, storage, and communications 6.2%, finance and business 13.1%, personal and other services 6.4%, public services 31.2% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.7% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $44.98 billion
expenditures: $51.07 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
108.6% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-0.6% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
42.24 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.82 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.457 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
80 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
260,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.92 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.81 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-174 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.32 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 37.3%, Belgium 5.3%, UK 4.1% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$32.27 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 19.7%, Belgium 7.8%, Germany 7.6%, UK 6.5%, Switzerland 6.4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$26.32 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$70.97 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$662 million from US (2003 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
new Israeli shekel (ILS); note - NIS is the currency abbreviation; ILS is the International Organization for Standarization (ISO) code for the NIS
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
ILS
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
new Israeli shekels per US dollar - 4.5541 (2003), 4.7378 (2002), 4.2057 (2001), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Israel
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.006 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.334 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital
international: country code - 972; 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
17 (plus 36 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.il
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
437,516 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Israel
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 640 km
standard gauge: 640 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 16,281 km
paved: 16,281 km (including 56 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 100 km; oil 1,509 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 752,873 GRT/881,711 DWT
by type: container 18
registered in other countries: 40 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
51 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 20 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Israel
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Israel Defense Forces (IDF): Ground Corps (including Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal)), Navy, Air Force(including Air Defense Forces); note - historically there have been no separate Israeli military services
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,581,883
females age 15-49: 1,532,234
note: both sexes are liable for military service (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,294,742
females age 15-49: 1,250,969 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 51,054
females: 53,515 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.11 billion (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.7% (FY02)

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   Transnational Issues    Israel
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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