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  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
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  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of India

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    India
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, dates back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.

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   Geography    India
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
7,000 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 54.4%
permanent crops: 2.74%
other: 42.86% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
590,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes

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   People    India
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,065,070,607 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 31.7% (male 173,869,856; female 164,003,915)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 349,785,804; female 326,289,402)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 25,885,725; female 25,235,905) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.4 years
male: 24.4 years
female: 24.4 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.44% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.8 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.38 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 57.92 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 63.99 years
male: 63.25 years
female: 64.77 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.85 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.97 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
310,000 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.5%
male: 70.2%
female: 48.3% (2003 est.)

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   Government    India
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
New Delhi
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
15 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
26 January 1950
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; limited judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Abdul KALAM (since 26 July 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 August 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since NA May 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term; election last held NA July 2002 (next to be held 18 July 2007); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held NA August 2007); prime minister elected by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held 3 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: Abdul KALAM elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 89.6%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president; percent of Parliament vote - 59.8%; Atal Bihari VAJPAYEE elected prime minister; percent of vote - NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members, up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 April through 10 May 2004 (next to be held NA 2009)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 145, BJP 138, CPI(M) 43, SP 36, RJD 21, BSP 19, DMK 16, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 9, JDU 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, TDP 5, TRS 5, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, independents 5, other 30
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Jayalalitha JAYARAM]; All India Forward Bloc or AIFB, [D. BISWAS, general secretary]; Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Venkaiah NAIDU]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist or CPI/ML [Dipankar BHATTACHARYA]; Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party in Tamil Nadu) [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National Congress or INC [leader NA]; Indian National League [Suliaman SAITH]; Janata Dal (Secular) [H. D. Deve GOWDA]; Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [leader NA]; Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. M. MANI]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LSP [leader NA]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]; Muslim League [G. M. BANATWALA]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [leader NA]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Abani ROY]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [G. S. TOHRA]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Tamil Maanila Congress [G. K. VASAN]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [leader NA]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, C, CP, FAO, G- 6, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MICAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Embassy located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3972
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. Mulford
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

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   Economy    India
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
India's economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of support services. Government controls have been reduced on foreign trade and investment, and privatization of domestic output has proceeded slowly. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6% since 1990, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the World Bank and others worry about the continuing public-sector budget deficit, running at approximately 60% of GDP.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $3.033 trillion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $2,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 23.6%
industry: 28.4%
services: 48% (2002 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.1% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
25% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 33.5% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37.8 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.8% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
472 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 60%, industry 17%, services 23% (1999)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.5% (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $86.69 billion
expenditures: $114.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $13.5 billion (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
59.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
533.3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
497.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
321 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.54 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
732,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.13 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.33 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
542.4 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.41 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$57.24 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 20.3%, China 6.3%, UK 5.2%, Hong Kong 4.7%, Germany 4.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$74.15 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 6.7%, Belgium 5.9%, UK 5%, China 4.5%, Singapore 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$102.3 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$101.7 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.9 billion (FY98/99)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Indian rupee (INR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
INR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Indian rupees per US dollar - 46.5806 (2003), 48.6103 (2002), 47.1864 (2001), 44.9416 (2000), 43.0554 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March

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   Communications    India
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48.917 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26,154,400 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but telephone density remains low at about seven for each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons in rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1.7 million; fastest growth is in cellular service with modest growth in fixed lines
domestic: expansion of domestic service, although still weak in rural areas, resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions in price led in large part by wireless service; mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each with about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 5 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international: country code - 91; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam; 5 submarine cables, including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with landing site at Cochin, i2icn linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic (2004)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have less than 1 kW of power) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.in
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
86,871 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.481 million (2003)

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   Transportation    India
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 63,140 km (15,994 km electrified)
broad gauge: 45,099 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 14,776 km 1.000-m gauge; 3,265 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,319,644 km
paved: 1,517,077 km
unpaved: 1,802,567 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
14,500 km
note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 5,798 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,195 km; oil 5,613 km; refined products 5,567 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Chennai (Madras), Cochin, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Vishakhapatnam
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 306 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,555,507 GRT/11,069,791 DWT
by type: bulk 90, cargo 77, chemical tanker 14, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 2, container 10, liquefied gas 10, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 93, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea/passenger 2, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: China 2, Portugal 1
registered in other countries: 63 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
333 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 234
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 47
1,524 to 2,437 m: 78
914 to 1,523 m: 74
under 914 m: 21 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 99
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 42
under 914 m: 45 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
20 (2003 est.)

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   Military    India
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (including naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (including Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 293,677,117 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 172,153,371 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 11,174,415 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14,018.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    India
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Kashmir remains the world's most highly militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas), but recent discussions and confidence-building measures among parties are beginning to defuse tensions; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding lands to China in the 1965 boundary agreement; disputes with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing and the terminus of the Sir Creek Estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, which prevents maritime boundary delimitation; Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; most of the rugged, militarized boundary with China is in dispute, but sides have committed to begin resolution with discussions on the least disputed Middle Sector; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to work on resolution of minor disputed boundary sections; discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, and violence; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; dispute with Bangladesh over volcanic New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; India seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Burma to keep out Indian Nagaland insurgents; joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of boundary with Nepal; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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