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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Indonesia

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Indonesia
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, preventing terrorism, continuing the transition to popularly-elected governments after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing reforms of the banking sector, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and resolving armed separatist movements in Aceh and Papua.

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   Geography    Indonesia
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,830 km
border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 11.32%
permanent crops: 7.23%
other: 81.45% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

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   People    Indonesia
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
238,452,952 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.4% (male 35,635,790; female 34,416,854)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 78,097,767; female 78,147,909)
65 years and over: 5.1% (male 5,308,986; female 6,845,646) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 26.1 years
male: 25.7 years
female: 26.6 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.49% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.11 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.26 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 36.82 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.09 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.26 years
male: 66.84 years
female: 71.8 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.47 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,400 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.9%
male: 92.5%
female: 83.4% (2002)

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   Government    Indonesia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Jakarta
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts or regencies became the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence that was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name Timor Leste (East Timor) was adopted as the name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence)
note: on 27 December 1949 the Netherlands recognized Indonesian independence
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president previously were elected separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; next election to be held 5 July 2004; in accordance with constitutional changes, the election of the president and vice president will be by direct vote of the citizenry
election results: MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 195 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes; constitutional amendments adopted in 2001 and 2002 provide for the MPR to be restructured in 2004 and to consist entirely of popularly-elected members who will be in the DPR and the new House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD); the MPR will no longer formulate national policy
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 57, PKB 52, PAN 52, PKS 45, others 49
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the number of votes received by parties
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Budi SANTOSO, chairman]; Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANDJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Hidayat NUR WAHID, chairman]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

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   Economy    Indonesia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces economic development problems stemming from recent acts of terrorism, unequal resource distribution among regions, endemic corruption, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, weaknesses in the banking system, and a generally poor climate for foreign investment. Indonesia withdrew from its IMF program at the end of 2003, but issued a "White Paper" that commits the government to maintaining fundamentally sound macroeconomic policies previously established under IMF guidelines. Investors, however, continued to face a host of on-the-ground microeconomic problems and an inadequate judicial system. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $758.8 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $3,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 43.6%
services: 39.9% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
105.7 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.7% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $40.91 billion
expenditures: $44.95 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
72.9% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.7% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
95.78 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
89.08 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.451 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.045 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.083 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
69 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.549 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.336 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$63.89 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 22.3%, US 12.1%, Singapore 8.9%, South Korea 7.1%, China 6.2% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$40.22 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 13%, Singapore 12.8%, China 9.1%, US 8.3%, Thailand 5.2%, Australia 5.1%, South Korea 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.6% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$36.25 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$135.7 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$43 billion Indonesia finished its IMF program in December 2003 but still receives bilateral aid through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which pledged $2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004. (2003 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
IDR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 8,577.13 (2003), 9,311.19 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.77 (2000), 7,855.15 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year

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   Communications    Indonesia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.75 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.7 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
41 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.id
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62,036 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Indonesia
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
21,579 km
note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 672 km; condensate/gas 125 km; gas 8,183 km; oil 7,429 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1,329 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 718 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,192,847 GRT/4,319,739 DWT
by type: bulk 47, cargo 398, chemical tanker 13, container 57, liquefied gas 6, livestock carrier 1, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 13, petroleum tanker 128, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea/passenger 9, specialized tanker 12, vehicle carrier 7
foreign-owned: France 1, Germany 1, Greece 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 2, Japan 3, Malaysia 1, Monaco 2, Panama 1, Philippines 2, Singapore 12, Switzerland 1, United Kingdom 2, United States 1
registered in other countries: 109 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
661 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 154
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 44 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 507
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 478 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
22 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Indonesia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia Armed Forces (TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, including Marines, Naval Air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 66,458,805 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 38,728,029 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 2,196,424 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1 billion (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (FY98)

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   Transnational Issues    Indonesia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a southern maritime boundary; numbers of East Timor refugees in Indonesia refuse repatriation; the Australia-East Timor 1999 maritime delimitation establishes partial maritime boundaries over part of the Timor Gap, but temporary resource-sharing agreements over an unreconciled area hamper creation of a shared maritime boundary with Indonesia; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesian secessionists, squatters and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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