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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Hungary

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Hungary
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.

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   Geography    Hungary
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 50.09%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 47.85% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

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   People    Hungary
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,032,375 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16% (male 826,032; female 782,687)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,407,931; female 3,517,450)
65 years and over: 15% (male 545,488; female 952,787) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.4 years
male: 35.9 years
female: 41.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.25% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.77 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.16 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.25 years
male: 68.07 years
female: 76.69 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.31 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Hungary
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Budapest
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
: counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
: urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
: capital city: Budapest
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
rule of law based on Western model
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since 4 August 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - 197 to 12 out of 386
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - Fidesz/MDF 48.70%, MSzP 46.11%, SzDSz 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - Fidesz 164, MSzP 178, MDF 24, SzDSz 20
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz-MPP [Jozsef SZAJER, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador George Herbert WALKER
embassy: 1054 Szabadsag ter 12, Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

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   Economy    Hungary
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation has declined substantially, from 14% in 1998 to 4.7% in 2003; unemployment has persisted around the 6% level. Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Short-term issues include the reduction of the public sector deficit to 3% in 2004 and avoiding unjustified increases in wages.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $139.8 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $13,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 32.5%
services: 64.2% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
24.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.164 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 8%, industry 27%, services 65% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $35 billion
expenditures: $39.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
57% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.4% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.39 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35.15 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
7.261 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
10.43 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41,190 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
140,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
47,180 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
136,600 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110.7 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.231 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.37 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.587 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.45 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-7.347 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$42.03 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 57.6%, other manufactures 31.0%, food products 7.5%, raw materials 1.9%, fuels and electricity 1.9% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 31.9%, Austria 12.4%, US 6.4%, Italy 4.9%, France 4.5%, UK 4.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$46.19 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.3%, fuels and electricity 8.2%, food products 2.9%, raw materials 2.0% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 28.8%, Austria 8.2%, Italy 7%, Russia 6.2%, China 4.9%, France 4.8% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.78 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$42.38 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $250 million (2000)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
forint (HUF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
HUF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
forints per US dollar - 224.307 (2003), 257.887 (2002), 286.49 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Hungary
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,666,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,862,800 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.hu
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
383,071 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Hungary
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7,937 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,682 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 438 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 7,568 GRT/10,025 DWT
by type: cargo 2
registered in other countries: 8 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
43 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 9 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
5 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Hungary
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,519,052 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,011,750 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 64,426 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.75% (2002 est.)

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   Transnational Issues    Hungary
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in neighboring states, who had objected to the law; Slovakia and Hungary have renewed discussions on ways to resolve differences over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam on the Danube, with possible resort again to the ICJ for final resolution
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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