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Map of Finland

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Finland
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.

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   Geography    Finland
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 338,145 sq km
land: 304,473 sq km
water: 33,672 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,690 km
border countries: Norway 736 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,340 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,250 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti 1,328 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7.19%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 92.78% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
640 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

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   People    Finland
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,214,512 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.5% (male 466,036; female 448,339)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,760,472; female 1,719,917)
65 years and over: 15.7% (male 323,082; female 496,666) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40.7 years
male: 39.1 years
female: 42.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.18% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.56 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.91 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 78.24 years
male: 74.73 years
female: 81.89 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.73 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Sami 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Russian Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA
female: NA

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   Government    Finland
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Helsinki
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 March 2000
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003) and Deputy Prime Minister Antti KALLIOMAKI (since 17 April 2003); note - former Prime Minister Anneli JAATTEENMAKI resigned
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 16 January 2000 and 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections
election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esko AHO (Kesk) 48.4%
note: government coalition - KESK, SDP, and SFP
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 24.7%, SDP 24.5%, Kok 18.5%, VAS 9.9%, VIHR 8%, KD 5.3%, SFP 4.6%; seats by party - Kesk 55, SDP 53, Kok 40, VAS 19, VIHR 14, KD 7, SFP 8, others 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Bjarne KALLIS]; Green League or VIHR [Osmo SOININVAARA]; Left Alliance or VAS composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne SIIMES]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Ville Heimo Antero ITALA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik ENESTAM]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jukka Robert VALTASAARI
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 174681
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

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   Economy    Finland
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 12 countries joining the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2003 was held back by the global slowdown but will pick up in 2004 provided the world economy suffers no further blows.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $142.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $27,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4.3%
industry: 32.7%
services: 62.9% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25.6 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.599 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture and forestry 8%, industry 22%, construction 6%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, transport and communications 8%, public services 32%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $87.03 billion
expenditures: $81.62 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metal products, electronics, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
71.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
76.18 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.81 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
11.77 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
211,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
101,000 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
318,300 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.557 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.567 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.3 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$54.28 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 11.8%, Sweden 9.9%, US 8.2%, UK 8%, Russia 7.5%, Netherlands 4.8% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$37.35 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 16.2%, Sweden 14.1%, Russia 11.7%, Netherlands 6.3%, Denmark 5.7%, UK 5.3%, France 4.3% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.17 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30 billion (December 1993)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $379 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
EUR
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Finland
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.548 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finland Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.fi
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,219,173 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.65 million (2002)

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   Transportation    Finland
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,851 km
broad gauge: 5,851 km 1.524-m gauge (2,400 km electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78,137 km
paved: 50,398 km (including 750 km of expressways)
unpaved: 27,739 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
7,842 km
note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 694 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 90 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,152,175 GRT/1,053,906 DWT
by type: bulk 9, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, container 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 9, roll on/roll off 28, short-sea/passenger 10
foreign-owned: Estonia 1
registered in other countries: 39 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
148 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 75
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 13 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 69 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Finland
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,226,890 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,013,961 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 32,058 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.8 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (FY98/99)

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   Transnational Issues    Finland
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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