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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Czech Republic

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Czech Republic
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

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   Geography    Czech Republic
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78,866 sq km
land: 77,276 sq km
water: 1,590 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 39.8%
permanent crops: 3.05%
other: 57.15% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
240 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

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   People    Czech Republic
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,246,178 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15% (male 789,987; female 748,476)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 3,643,574; female 3,622,276)
65 years and over: 14.1% (male 557,496; female 884,369) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.6 years
male: 36.9 years
female: 40.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.05% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.1 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.54 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 75.78 years
male: 72.52 years
female: 79.24 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.18 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 10 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5% (1991)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%, Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%, atheist 39.8%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Czech
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)
male: NA
female: NA

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   Government    Czech Republic
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Prague
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)
note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor on 28 February 2003 after two inconclusive elections in January 2003
head of government: Prime Minister Stanislav GROSS (since 26 July 2004), Deputy Prime Ministers Zdenek SKROMACH (since 4 August 2004), Martin JAHN (since 4 August 2004), Pavel NEMEC (since 4 August 2004); Milan SIMONOVSKY (since 4 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held NA January 2008); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 25-26 October and 1-2 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 14-15 June 2002 (next to be held by NA June 2006)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 26, KDU-CSL 14, CSSD 11, US 9, KSCM 3, independents 18; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 30.2%, ODS 24.5%, KSCM 18.5%, KDU-CSL & US-DEU coalition 14.3%, other minor 12.5%; seats by party - CSSD 70, ODS 58, KSCM 41, KDU-CSL 21, US-DEU 10
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Miroslav KALOUSEK, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY, chairman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Miroslav GREBENICEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia or KSC [Miroslav STEPAN, chairman]; Czech National Social Party of CSNS [Jaroslav ROVNY, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Vladimir SPIDLA, chairman]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Petr MARES, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Confederation [Milan STECH]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin PALOUS
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William J. CABANISS
embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] (2) 5753-0663
FAX: [420] (2) 5753-0583
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

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   Economy    Czech Republic
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
One of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in 2000-03 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a near doubling of foreign direct investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as interest rates drop and the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. High current account deficits - averaging around 5% of GDP in the last several years - could be a persistent problem. Inflation is under control. The EU put the Czech Republic just behind Poland and Hungary in preparations for accession, which will give further impetus and direction to structural reform. Moves to complete banking, telecommunications, and energy privatization will encourage additional foreign investment, while intensified restructuring among large enterprises and banks, and improvements in the financial sector, should strengthen output growth. Nonetheless, revival in the European economies remains essential to stepped-up growth.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $161.1 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $15,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 35.5%
services: 61.4% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.25 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 5%, industry 35%, services 60% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.9% (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $33.25 billion
expenditures: $38.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.3% (2003)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
70.04 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
18.92 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
9.38 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,419 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
175,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26,670 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
192,300 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.25 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.892 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.521 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.057 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-5.57 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$46.77 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 44%, intermediate manufactures 25%, chemicals 7%, raw materials and fuel 7% (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 37.1%, Slovakia 8%, Austria 6.3%, UK 5.4%, Poland 4.8%, France 4.7%, Italy 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$50.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 40%, intermediate manufactures 21%, raw materials and fuels 13%, chemicals 11% (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 32.6%, Italy 5.3%, China 5.2%, Slovakia 5.2%, France 4.9%, Russia 4.6%, Austria 4.3%, Poland 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$26.8 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$28 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$108 million; EU structural adjustment funds (2002)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Czech koruna (CZK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
CZK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
koruny per US dollar - 28.209 (2003), 32.7385 (2002), 38.0353 (2001), 38.5984 (2000), 34.5692 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Czech Republic
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.626 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,708,700 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous
domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.cz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
295,677 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7 million (2003)

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   Transportation    Czech Republic
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 9,520 km
standard gauge: 9,421 km 1.435-m gauge (2,893 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 99 km 0.760-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 55,408 km
paved: 55,408 km (including 499 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
664 km (on Elbe, Vlatava, and Oder rivers) (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 7,020 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
120 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 17 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 76
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 48 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Czech Republic
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Czech Army: Ground Forces, Air Forces, Special Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,623,386 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,003,748 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 67,195 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,190.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (FY01)

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   Transnational Issues    Czech Republic
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918; individual Sudeten Germans seek restitution for property confiscated in connection with their expulsion after World War II; Austria has minor dispute with Czech Republic over the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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