Top banner
ZL's Geographycards

         
  Estonia  
Flag of Estonia
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

Here is some information about Estonia . You need all the info you can get about Estonia before you go there. Don't go to Estonia without first checking this page.

Detailed and accurate educational information about every country in the world. Important resource for kids and adults who want to know more about geography. If you are interested in geography you should also take a look at this educational geography card game for all ages.  


Country map showing major cities and other features.


Map of Estonia

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Estonia
Background:
Definition Field Listing
After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Geography    Estonia
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,794 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16.04%
permanent crops: 0.45%
other: 83.51% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
40 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   People    Estonia
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,341,664 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16% (male 110,452; female 104,363)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 431,493; female 474,255)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 72,819; female 148,282) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.8 years
male: 35.1 years
female: 42.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.66% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.79 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.27 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.38 years
male: 65.78 years
female: 77.33 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 7,700 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Estonian 65.3%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Belarusian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2003 est.)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Government    Estonia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Tallinn
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 is the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia; 20 August 1991 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 28 June 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Juhan PARTS (since 10 April 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan PARTS]; Russian Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS
embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [372] 668-8100
FAX: [372] 668-8134
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Economy    Estonia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors. Estonia has been invited to join the European Union and will do so in May 2004. The economy is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, Russia, and Germany, four major trading partners. The high current account deficit remains a concern. However, the state budget enjoyed a surplus of $130 million in 2003.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $17.35 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $12,300 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4.9%
industry: 30.3%
services: 64.8% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.2% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
654,000 (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 11%, industry 20%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.1% (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.806 billion
expenditures: $3.648 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.4% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.937 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.192 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.19 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,100 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-1.15 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.075 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Finland 21.9%, Sweden 12.5%, Russia 11.5%, Germany 8.4%, Latvia 7.4%, Lithuania 4% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.535 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Finland 15.9%, Germany 11.1%, Russia 10.2%, Sweden 7.7%, Ukraine 4.3%, China 4.2%, Japan 4.1% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.377 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.002 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$108 million (2000)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Estonian kroon (EEK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
EEK
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
krooni per US dollar - 13.8564 (2003), 16.6118 (2002), 17.4781 (2001), 16.9686 (2000), 14.6776 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Communications    Estonia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
475,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
881,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000
domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country
international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ee
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
82,142 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
444,000 (2002)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Transportation    Estonia
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 958 km
broad gauge: 958 km 1.520-m/1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified)
note: gauge being increased from 1.520-m to 1.524-m to reduce wear on wheels and rail as lines are modernized (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 51,411 km
paved: 10,334 km (including 94 km of expressways)
unpaved: 41,077 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
500 km (2003)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 859 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 212,998 GRT/177,488 DWT
by type: bulk 2, cargo 12, container 4, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea/passenger 5
foreign-owned: Netherlands 1
registered in other countries: 45 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
29 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 6 (2003 est.)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Military    Estonia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard
note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces in wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense in peacetime and the Estonian Navy in wartime
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (Estonia has committed to retaining conscription up to 2010) (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 326,803 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 257,386 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 10,884 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2002 est.)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Transnational Issues    Estonia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


Bottom Banner