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  Egypt  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Egypt

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Egypt
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

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   Geography    Egypt
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,665 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,450 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.87%
permanent crops: 0.48%
other: 96.65% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
33,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

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   People    Egypt
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
76,117,421 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 33.4% (male 13,038,369; female 12,418,254)
15-64 years: 62.2% (male 23,953,949; female 23,419,418)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,407,248; female 1,880,183) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23.4 years
male: 23 years
female: 23.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.83% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.84 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 34.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 70.71 years
male: 68.22 years
female: 73.31 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.95 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 68.3%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Egypt
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Cairo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
11 September 1971
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005); Advisory Council - last held May-June 2001 (next to be held NA 2007)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP 88%, independents 8%, opposition 4%; seats by party - NDP 398, NWP 7, Tagammu 6, Nasserists 2, LSP 1, independents 38, undecided 2; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Liberal Party or LSP [leader NA]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [RIfaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMA]; Socialist Liberal Party or Al-Ahrar [Hilmi SALIM]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, ACC, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador M. Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador C. David WELCH
embassy: 5 Latin America St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band

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   Economy    Egypt
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Lack of substantial progress on economic reform since the mid 1990s has limited foreign direct investment in Egypt and kept annual GDP growth in the range of 2-3 percent in 2001-03. Egyptian officials in late 2003 and early 2004 proposed new privatization and customs reform measures, but the government is likely to pursue these initiatives cautiously and gradually to avoid a public backlash over potential inflation or layoffs associated with the reforms. Monetary pressures on an overvalued Egyptian pound led the government to float the currency in January 2003, leading to a sharp drop in its value and consequent inflationary pressure. The existence of a black market for hard currency is evidence that the government continues to influence the official exchange rate offered in banks. In September 2003, Egyptian officials increased subsidies on basic foodstuffs, helping to calm a frustrated public but widening an already deep budget deficit. Egypt's balance-of-payments position was not hurt by the war in Iraq in 2003, as tourism and Suez Canal revenues fared well. The development of an export market for natural gas is a bright spot for future growth prospects, but improvement in the capital-intensive hydrocarbons sector does little to reduce Egypt's persistent unemployment.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $295.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 17%
industry: 33%
services: 50% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
16.7% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 29.5% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
34.4 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.3% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.19 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 32%, industry 17%, services 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.9% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $14.69 billion
expenditures: $19.03 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
101.8% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
75.23 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
69.96 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
816,900 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
562,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.308 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.264 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.874 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.759 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 13.6%, Italy 12.4%, UK 8.1%, France 4.8%, Germany 4.7%, India 4.2% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.75 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 13.4%, Germany 7.3%, Italy 6.9%, France 6.5%, China 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.22 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30.34 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $1.2 billion (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Egyptian pound (EGP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
EGP
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Egyptian pounds per US dollar - 5.8509 (2003), 4.4997 (2002), 3.973 (2001), 3.4721 (2000), 3.3953 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June

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   Communications    Egypt
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,735,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,797,500 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 20; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
98 (September 1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.eg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,401 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7 million (2003)

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   Transportation    Egypt
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,063 km
standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 64,000 km
paved: 49,984 km
unpaved: 14,016 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
3,500 km
note: includes the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m of water (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 327 km; condensate/gas 94 km; gas 6,145 km; liquid petroleum gas 382 km; oil 5,726 km; oil/gas/water 36 km; water 62 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,194,696 GRT/1,754,815 DWT
by type: bulk 18, cargo 41, container 5, passenger 64, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 13, short-sea/passenger 4
foreign-owned: China 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 2, Turkey 1
registered in other countries: 50 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
89 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 9 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Egypt
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 20,340,716 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 13,148,944 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 756,233 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,443.2 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.6% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Egypt
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is economically developing and effectively administers the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty line
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; transit stop for Nigerian couriers; concern as money-laundering site due to lax financial regulations and enforcement

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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