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  Geography
  People
  Government
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  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Ecuador

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Ecuador
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.

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   Geography    Ecuador
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
2 00 S, 77 30 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Nevada
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,237 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.85%
permanent crops: 4.93%
other: 89.22% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
8,650 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

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   People    Ecuador
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13,212,742 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 33.9% (male 2,285,775; female 2,199,356)
15-64 years: 61.2% (male 4,020,873; female 4,062,672)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 302,129; female 341,937) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23 years
male: 22.5 years
female: 23.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.03% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.18 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.26 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-8.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24.49 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 76.01 years
male: 73.15 years
female: 79 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.78 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,700 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 94%
female: 91% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Ecuador
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Quito
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
10 August 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lucio GUTIERREZ (since 15 January 2003); Vice President Alfredo PALACIO (since 15 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)
election results: results of the 24 November 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSC 25, PRE 15, ID 16, PRIAN 10, PSP 9, Pachakutik Movement 6, MPD 5, DP 4, PS-FA 3, independents 7; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Movement [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Leonidas IZA, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CAN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Raul GANGOTENA Rivadeneira
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie Anne KENNEY
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890
FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

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   Economy    Ecuador
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources, which have accounted for 40% of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of public sector revenues in recent years. Consequently, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. In the late 1990s, Ecuador suffered its worst economic crisis, with natural disasters and sharp declines in world petroleum prices driving Ecuador's economy into free fall in 1999. Real GDP contracted by more than 6%, with poverty worsening significantly. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. The currency depreciated by some 70% in 1999, and, on the brink of hyperinflation, the MAHAUD government announced it would dollarize the economy. A coup, however, ousted MAHAUD from office in January 2000, and after a short-lived junta failed to garner military support, Vice President Gustavo NOBOA took over the presidency. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. Under the administration of Lucio GUTIERREZ, who took office in January 2003, Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices, but the government has made little progress on fiscal reforms and reforms of state-owned enterprises necessary to reduce Ecuador's vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $45.65 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $3,300 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8.7%
industry: 29.7%
services: 61.6% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
65% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
43.7 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.36 million (urban) (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.8%; note - underemployment of 47% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $6.908 billion
expenditures: planned $6.594 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
53.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.3% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
75.23 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
69.96 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
421,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
129,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.358 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
106.5 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-117 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.073 billion (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 41.5%, Colombia 5.6%, Germany 5.5%, South Korea 5.5% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.22 billion (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
consumer goods, industrial raw materials, capital goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 23.1%, Colombia 12.4%, Brazil 8.1%, Venezuela 6.9%, Chile 4.7%, Japan 4.1% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.161 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.69 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$120 million (2001)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
US dollar (USD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
USD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Ecuador formally adopted the US dollar as legal tender in March 2000
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Ecuador
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.549 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,394,400 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ec
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,188 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
569,700 (2003)

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   Transportation    Ecuador
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 966 km
narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 43,197 km
paved: 8,164 km
unpaved: 35,033 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2003)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 71 km; oil 1,575 km; refined products 1,185 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, San Lorenzo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 241,403 GRT/391,898 DWT
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 5, petroleum tanker 21, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: Greece 1, Paraguay 1, Peru 1
registered in other countries: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
205 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 61
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 18 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 144
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 113 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Ecuador
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 3,440,371 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,315,808 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 132,476 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$650 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Ecuador
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the continuing civil disorder in Colombia has created a serious refugee crisis in neighboring states, especially Ecuador
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime, especially vulnerable along the border with Colombia; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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