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  Congo, Republic of the  
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Map of Congo, Republic of the

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Congo, Republic of the
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government installed in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President SASSOU-NGUESSO, but ushered in a period of ethnic unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers with significant potential for offshore development.

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   Geography    Congo, Republic of the
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 00 S, 15 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 342,000 sq km
land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,504 km
border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
169 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.51%
permanent crops: 0.13%
other: 99.36% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
seasonal flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them

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   People    Congo, Republic of the
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,998,040
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 37.9% (male 571,224; female 563,723)
15-64 years: 58.5% (male 865,596; female 888,125)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 45,093; female 64,279) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 20.4 years
male: 20 years
female: 20.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.42% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.66 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.49 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 93.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 99.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 49.51 years
male: 48.51 years
female: 50.55 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.54 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
90,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,700 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
note: Europeans estimated at 8,500, mostly French, before the 1997 civil war; may be half that in 1998, following the widespread destruction of foreign businesses in 1997
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78.4% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Congo, Republic of the
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
local long form: Republique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Brazzaville
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
15 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
constitution approved by referendum 20 January 2002
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second seven-year term); election last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2009)
election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (66 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 July 2002 (next to be held NA July 2007); National Assembly - last held 27 May and 26 June 2002 (next to be held by NA May 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDP 56, other 10; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDP 83, UDR 6, UPADS 3, other 45
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
the most important of the many parties are the Democratic and Patriotic Forces or FDP (an alliance of Convention for Alternative Democracy, Congolese Labor Party or PCT, Liberal Republican Party, National Union for Democracy and Progress, Patriotic Union for the National Reconstruction, and Union for the National Renewal) [Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [leader NA]; Union of Democratic Forces or UFD [Sebastian EBAO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI
chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Robin R. SANDERS
embassy: NA
mailing address: NA
telephone: [243] (88) 43608
note: the embassy is temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (US Embassy Kinshasa, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

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   Economy    Congo, Republic of the
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy is a mixture of village agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to a shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since. Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic problems of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $2.148 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 6.9%
industry: 53.9%
services: 39.2% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2003)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.025 billion
expenditures: $946.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
358.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
633 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
300 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
275,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
93.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
495.5 million cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$139.2 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.293 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 27.1%, South Korea 21.4%, US 15.2%, Taiwan 14.4% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$666.9 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 22.4%, US 6.9%, Italy 6.3%, China 5.2%, Belgium 4.7%, India 4.4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$44.53 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$159.1 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
XAF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 581.2 (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.7 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Congo, Republic of the
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
330,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order
domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable
international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.cg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (2003)

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   Transportation    Congo, Republic of the
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 894 km
narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,800 km
paved: 1,242 km
unpaved: 11,558 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
4,385 km (on Congo and Oubanqui rivers) (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 53 km; oil 673 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
32 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 28
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 11 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Congo, Republic of the
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Congolese Armed Forces (FAC): Army, Air Force, Navy
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 773,790 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 390,884 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 31,964 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$68.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.8% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Congo, Republic of the
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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