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Here is some information about Chad . Chad is a country with much to know about. Don't go to Chad without first checking this page.

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Map of Chad

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Chad
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually suppressed or came to terms with most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution, and held multiparty presidential elections in 1996 and 1997. In 1998, a new rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite two peace agreements signed in 2002 and 2003 between the government and the rebels. Despite movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a northern ethnic oligarchy.

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   Geography    Chad
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.86%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.12% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

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   People    Chad
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,538,544 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,297,490; female 2,269,801)
15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,245,586; female 2,459,796)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 107,594; female 158,277) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 16.7 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46.5 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 94.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 104.01 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 85.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 48.24 years
male: 46.91 years
female: 49.63 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
200,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 47.5%
male: 56%
female: 39.3% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Chad
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department), and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
passed by referendum 31 March 1996
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Moussa Faki MAHAMAT (since NA July 2003)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 63%, Ngarlegy YORONGAR 16%, Saleh KEBZABO 7%
note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified, members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable every two years)
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held in NA April 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, others 11
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarlejy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Mamadou BISSO]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman] (originally in opposition but now the party in power and the party of the president); Rally for Democracy and Progress or RPD [leader NA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]; Viva Rally for Development and Progress or Viva RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher E. GOLDTHWAIT
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 70-09
FAX: [235] (51) 56-54
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

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   Economy    Chad
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major oilfield and pipeline projects that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and stock raising for its livelihood. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's export earnings, but Chad will begin to export oil in 2004. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves estimated at 1 billion barrels in southern Chad. Oil production came on stream in late 2003.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $10.67 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 32.4%
industry: 18.8%
services: 48.8% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2002)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture more than 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2000)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $591.2 million
expenditures: $680.9 million, including capital expenditures of $146 million (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (1995)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
94.04 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
87.46 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-474 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$365 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, cattle, gum arabic
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 24.2%, Germany 16.5%, Portugal 15.4%, France 6.6%, Nigeria 5.5%, Morocco 4.4% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$760 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 25.8%, US 18.7%, Cameroon 13.2%, Nigeria 6.8%, Netherlands 4.2% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$191.8 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.1 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$238.3 million; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank; ODA $150 million (2001 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
XAF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 581.2 (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Chad
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,800 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
65,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.td
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Chad
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2002)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
oil 205 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
50 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 43
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Chad
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Armed Forces: National Army (ANT), Air Force, and Republican Guard
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,008,825 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,051,802 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 91,231 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$55.4 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Chad
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
civil war in Sudan overlaps into Chad as both states step up border patrols, leaving refugees and rebel groups in both countries; Chad serves as an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region; Chad rejects Nigerian request to redemarcate boundary, the site of periodic cross-border incidents

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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