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  Geography
  People
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Map of Burundi

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Burundi
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only four months in office. Since then, some 200,000 Burundians have perished in widespread, often intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Hundreds of thousands have been internally displaced or have become refugees in neighboring countries. Burundi troops, seeking to secure their borders, intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998. More recently, many of these troops have been redeployed back to Burundi to deal with periodic upsurges in rebel activity. A new transitional government, inaugurated on 1 November 2001, was to be the first step toward holding national elections in three years. While the Government of Burundi signed a cease-fire agreement in December 2002 with three of Burundi's four Hutu rebel groups, implementation of the agreement has been problematic and one rebel group refuses to sign on, clouding prospects for a sustainable peace.

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   Geography    Burundi
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November, and dry seasons from June to August and December to January
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 35.05%
permanent crops: 14.02%
other: 50.93% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding, landslides, drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile

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   People    Burundi
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,231,221
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 46.4% (male 1,459,251; female 1,430,332)
15-64 years: 50.9% (male 1,566,274; female 1,607,705)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 66,306; female 101,353) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16.5 years
male: 16.1 years
female: 16.8 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.2% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
39.68 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 70.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 77.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 43.36 years
male: 42.73 years
female: 44 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.6%
male: 58.5%
female: 45.2% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Burundi
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
16 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice presidents
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003); note - KADEGE is from the Tutsi minority
head of government: President Domitien NDAYIZEYE (since 30 April 2003); note - NDAYIZEYE, a Hutu, was sworn in as president for the second half of the three-year transitional government inaugurated on 1 November 2001; Vice President Alphonse KADEGE (since 30 April 2003); note - KADEGE is from the Tutsi minority
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections: NA; current president assumed power on 30 April 2003 as part of the transitional government established by the 2000 Arusha Accord
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (expanded from 121 to approximately 140 seats under the transitional government inaugurated 1 November 2001; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; term length is undefined, the current senators will likely serve out the three-year transition period)
elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in 1998, but was suspended by presidential decree in 1996; elections are planned to follow the completion of the three-year transitional government)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA 21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, civilians 27, other parties 13
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
the two national, mainstream, governing parties are: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Alphonse KADEGE, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean MINANI, president]
note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA [Terrence NSANZE]; Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Joseph NZEYIMANA]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]; People's Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated with Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government security forces
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador James Howard YELLIN
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 223454
FAX: [257] 222926
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

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   Economy    Burundi
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the population. Since October 1993 an ethnic-based war has resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced 800,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 525,000 others internally. Doubts about the prospects for sustainable peace continue to impede development. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in ten adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $3.78 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-1.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $600 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 47.4%
industry: 19.3%
services: 33.3% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
68% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
42.5 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.99 million (2002)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 93.6%, industry 2.3%, services 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $179.4 million
expenditures: $209 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18% (2001)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
155.4 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
177.5 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
33 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,750 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-35 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$40 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 16.3%, US 14%, Belgium 11.6%, Kenya 9.3%, Netherlands 9.3%, Rwanda 7%, China 4.7%, France 4.7% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$128 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 12.7%, Belgium 10.1%, Kenya 7.6%, France 7%, Algeria 5.7%, Tanzania 5.7%, India 4.4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$67.4 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.133 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$92.7 million (2000)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi franc (BIF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BIF
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002), 830.35 (2001), 720.67 (2000), 563.56 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Burundi
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,900 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
64,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bi
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14,000 (2003)

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   Transportation    Burundi
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 14,480 km
paved: 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bujumbura
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
8 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Burundi
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (including Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,419,755 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 747,400 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 81,862 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$33.3 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Burundi
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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