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  Brunei  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Brunei

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Brunei
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.

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   Geography    Brunei
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
161 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.57%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 98.67% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

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   People    Brunei
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
365,251 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.1% (male 54,243; female 52,013)
15-64 years: 68% (male 131,682; female 116,631)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 5,035; female 5,647) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 26.7 years
male: 27.3 years
female: 26 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.95% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.33 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 13.05 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 16.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.54 years
male: 72.13 years
female: 77.09 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96.3%
female: 91.4% (2002)

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   Government    Brunei
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional sultanate
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
none
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
Legislation falls under the Prime Minister's Office; there is a privy council that serves in a consultative capacity and other state councils whose members are appointed by the Sultan.
elections: last held in March 1962
note: the Sultan announced in July 2004 that an appointed Legislative Council will be reinstated by the end of 2004 after a 20-year hiatus
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice and judges are sworn in by the monarch for three-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962) and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965, deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Penigran Anak Dato PUTEH
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Gene B. CHRISTY
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan
mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

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   Economy    Brunei
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small, wealthy economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6.5 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $18,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 5%
industry: 45%
services: 50% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
143,400
note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10%, production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction 42%, government 48% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10% (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.35 billion (1997 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, vegetables, fruits, chickens, water buffalo
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.497 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.322 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
217,200 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.35 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
315 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.439 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 40.8%, South Korea 13.1%, US 10%, Australia 9%, Thailand 7.2%, China 7% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.63 billion c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore 27.4%, Malaysia 18.5%, UK 12.5%, Germany 7.2%, France 7%, Japan 5.7% (2003 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$0
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$4.3 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Bruneian dollar (BND)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BND
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000), 1.695 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Brunei
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
90,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
137,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bn
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,409 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Brunei
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,525 km
paved: 2,525 km
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
by type: liquefied gas 8
foreign-owned: United Kingdom 8 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Brunei
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 112,630 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: approx. 60,000 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 3,425 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$339.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Brunei
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their offshore and deepwater seabeds until negotiations progress to an agreement over allocation of disputed areas; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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