Top banner
ZL's Geographycards

         
  Bosnia and Herzegovina  
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

This is a page with information about Bosnia and Herzegovina . Being prepared with good info about Bosnia and Herzegovina will make a trip there easier. A trip to Bosnia and Herzegovina will not be good unless you check this page out.

Detailed and accurate educational information about every country in the world. Important resource for kids and adults who want to know more about geography. If you are interested in geography you should also take a look at this educational geography card game for all ages.  


Country map showing major cities and other features.


Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels are being reduced.

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Geography    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
44 00 N, 18 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 51,129 sq km
land: 51,129 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
20 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
No data available
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mountains and valleys
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 13.6%
permanent crops: 2.96%
other: 83.44% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   People    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,007,608 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.9% (male 389,062; female 368,721)
15-64 years: 70.6% (male 1,447,725; female 1,379,729)
65 years and over: 10.5% (male 180,801; female 241,570) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 35.9 years
male: 35.5 years
female: 36.2 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.45% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.56 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.33 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 21.88 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.57 years
male: 69.82 years
female: 75.51 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.71 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Serb 37.1%, Bosniak 48%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)
note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Government    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
emerging federal democratic republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Sarajevo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
there are two first-order administrative divisions and one internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 25 November (1943)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Sulejman TIHIC (chairman since 28 February 2004; presidency member since 5 October 2002 - Bosniak) other members of the three-member rotating (every eight months) presidency: Dragan COVIC (since 5 October 2002 - Croat) and Borislav PARAVAC (since 10 April 2003 - Serb); note - Mirko SAROVIC resigned 2 April 2003
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Adnan TERZIC (since 20 December 2002),
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was the incumbent chairman at the time of the election, but the chairmanship rotates every eight months; election last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Mirko SAROVIC with 35.5% of the Serb vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first eight months; Dragan COVIC received 61.5% of the Croat vote; Sulejman TIHIC received 37% of the Bosniak vote
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Niko LOZANCIC (since 27 January 2003); Vice Presidents Sahbaz DZIHANOVIC (since NA 2003) and Desnica RADIVOJEVIC (since NA 2003); President of the Republika Srpska: Dragan CAVIC (since 28 November 2002)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the National House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats - elected by proportional representation, 28 seats allocated from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats from the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures
elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in NA 2006); House of Peoples - last constituted NA January 2003 (next to be constituted in 2007)
election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - SDA 21.9%, SDS 14.0%, SBiH 10.5%, SDP 10.4%, SNSD 9.8%, HDZ 9.5%, PDP 4.6%, others 19.3%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SDS 5, SBiH 6, SDP 4, SNSD 3, HDZ 5, PDP 2, others 7; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held NA October 2006); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 32, HDZ-BiH 16, SDP 15, SBiH 15, other 20; and a House of Peoples (60 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat); last constituted December 2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 5 October 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDS 26, SNSD 19, PDP 9, SDA 6, SRS 4, SPRS 3, DNZ 3, SBiH 4, SDP 3, others 6; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly; each constituent nation and "others" will have eight delegates
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities; note - a War Crimes Chamber may be added at a future date)
note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ilija SIMIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ [Barisa COLAK]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Mijo IVANIC-LONIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zdravko HRISTIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Ilija SIMIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Fikret ABDIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Safet HALILOVIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Pro-European People's Party or PROENS [Jadranko PRLIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Dragan KALINIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BIS, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford G. BOND
embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Economy    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a number of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures, national-level statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is now pegged to the euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support national-level institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $24.31 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6,100 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 13%
industry: 40.9%
services: 46.1% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.026 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40% (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.271 billion
expenditures: $3.242 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (2001)
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.979 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.116 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
2.569 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.405 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
300 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
300 million cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-2.195 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.28 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
metals, clothing, wood products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 29%, Croatia 18.5%, Germany 17.3%, Austria 9.3%, Slovenia 6.7% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.7 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Croatia 24.3%, Slovenia 15.5%, Germany 13.6%, Italy 12%, Hungary 7.6%, Austria 6.6% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.796 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.5 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$650 million (2001 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
marka (BAM)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BAM
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
marka per US dollar - 1.7329 (2003), 1.7329 (2002), 2.1857 (2001), 2.1244 (2000), 1.8371 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Communications    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
938,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.05 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
33 (plus 277 repeaters) (September 1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ba
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,994 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100,000 (2002)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Transportation    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,021 km (795 km electrified)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 21,846 km
paved: 11,424 km
unpaved: 10,422 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
Sava River (northern border) is open to shipping but its use is limited because of the lack of an agreement with neighboring countries (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 170 km; oil 9 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava), Orasje
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
27 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 11 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
5 (2003 est.)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Military    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,133,847 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 898,451 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 30,130 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$234.3 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (FY02)

Learn geography the easy way by playing ZL's Geographycards (www.geographycards.com)

   Transnational Issues    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on problem sections around Kostajnica on the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
minor transit point for marijuana and opiate trafficking routes to Western Europe; remains highly vulnerable to money laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement and instances of corruption

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


Bottom Banner