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Map of Botswana

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Botswana
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

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   Geography    Botswana
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99.34% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

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   People    Botswana
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,561,973
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 39.2% (male 310,282; female 302,452)
15-64 years: 56.2% (male 424,613; female 452,801)
65 years and over: 4.6% (male 30,896; female 40,929) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19.2 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 19.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.89% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.71 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33.63 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 69.98 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 68.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 30.76 years
male: 30.99 years
female: 30.53 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
350,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.8%
male: 76.9%
female: 82.4% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Botswana
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 districts and four town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northwest, Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 54.3%, BNF 24.7%, other 21%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Seretse Ian KHAMA]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Mokgweetsi KGOSIPULA]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 312782
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

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   Economy    Botswana
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $8,800 in 2003. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for nine-tenths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. Long-term prospects are overshadowed by the expected leveling off in diamond mining production.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $14.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $9,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 48.7% (including 36% mining)
services: 52% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.9% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
47% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.2% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
264,000 formal sector employees (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.263 billion
expenditures: $3.283 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.3% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
409.8 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.564 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.183 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$539 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.544 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.753 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.25 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$392 million (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$73 million (1995)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
pula (BWP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
BWP
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
pulas per US dollar - 4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002), 5.8412 (2001), 5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March

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   Communications    Botswana
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
142,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
435,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast
international: country code - 267; two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,920 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Botswana
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 10,217 km
paved: 5,619 km
unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
none
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
85 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 75
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 54
under 914 m: 18 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Botswana
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana Defense Force (including an Air Wing)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 381,801 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 202,176 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 20,651 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$298.9 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.6% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Botswana
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
established a commission with Namibia to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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