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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Angola

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Angola
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.

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   Geography    Angola
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,600 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.41%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 97.35% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
750 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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   People    Angola
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,978,552 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,410,326; female 2,363,368)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,998,892; female 2,897,837)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 137,340; female 170,789) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.1 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.93% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.86 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 192.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 204.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 179.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 36.79 years
male: 36.06 years
female: 37.55 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
240,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)

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   Government    Angola
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Luanda
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been approved
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI
chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

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   Economy    Angola
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production supported 7% GDP growth in 2003.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8%
industry: 67%
services: 25% (2001 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
70% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
76.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.57 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $4.874 billion
expenditures: $6.012 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.45 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.348 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.691 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
79.57 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-475 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.669 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 48.1%, China 23.5%, Taiwan 8.1%, France 7.4% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.08 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal 18.1%, South Africa 12.3%, US 12.1%, Netherlands 11.5%, France 6.5%, Brazil 6.2%, UK 4.1% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$638.4 million (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.164 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$383.5 million (1999)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
kwanza (AOA)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
AOA
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
kwanza per US dollar - 74.6063 (2003), 43.5302 (2002), 22.0579 (2001), 10.041 (2000), 2.791 (1999), 0.393 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Angola
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
96,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
130,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ao
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Angola
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
1,300 km
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 845 km; refined products 56 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe (Mocamedes), Porto Amboim, Soyo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT
by type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
244 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 212
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 96
under 914 m: 80 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Angola
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces (FANA)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,620,219 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,317,328 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 113,103 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$265.1 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Angola
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
continues to give shelter to refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo while many Angolan refugees and Cabinda exclave secessionists reside in neighboring states
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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