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  Albania  
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  Introduction
  Geography
  People
  Government
  Economy
  Communications
  Transportation
  Military
  Transnational Issues

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Map of Albania

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Albania
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks with links to high government officials, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged parliamentary elections in 2001 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies. Some of these were addressed through reforms in the Albanian electoral code prior to the nationwide municipal elections in 2003.

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   Geography    Albania
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 28,748 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
362 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 21.09%
permanent crops: 4.42%
other: 74.49% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
3,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

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   People    Albania
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,544,808 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 26.4% (male 489,363; female 446,586)
15-64 years: 65.3% (male 1,184,670; female 1,130,065)
65 years and over: 8.3% (male 135,177; female 158,947) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 28.2 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 28.7 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.51% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.08 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.02 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-4.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 22.31 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.01 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 77.06 years
male: 74.37 years
female: 80.02 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.05 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, and Macedonian or Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Albanian (official - Tosk is the official dialect), Greek
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 86.5%
male: 93.3%
female: 79.5% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Albania
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
emerging democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Tirana
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Fatos NANO (since 31 July 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 24 June 2001 with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH (now PAA) 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH (now PAA) 3, PAD 3, independents 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Environmentalist Agrarian Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or PAD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Alliance Party II or PAD II [Arben IMAMI]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Democratic Union Party or PBLD [Teodor LACO]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Shpetim RROQI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Reformed Democratic Party or PDR [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albanian Party of Labor) [Fatos NANO]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]
note: the New (of Reformed) Democratic Party split into two groups - one led by Genc POLLO, the other by Dashamir SHEHI
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY
embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
telephone: [355] (4) 247285
FAX: [355] (4) 232222
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

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   Economy    Albania
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the sizable trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for one-half of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of land. Severe energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The government plans to boost energy imports to relieve the shortages and is moving slowly to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $16.13 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $4,500 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 47.5%
industry: 24.6%
services: 27.8% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
30% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2003)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.35 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 57%, non-agricultural private sector 20%, public sector 23% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.8% officially; may be as high as 30% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.36 billion
expenditures: $1.627 billion, including capital expenditures of $406 million (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.289 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.898 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
221 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,952 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
185.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.316 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-407 million (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$425 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 73.2%, Germany 5%, Greece 4.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.76 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 37.9%, Greece 21.3%, Turkey 5.9%, Germany 5.4% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.038 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.41 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
lek (ALL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
ALL
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
leke per US dollar - 121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002), 143.485 (2001), 143.709 (2000), 137.691 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Albania
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
255,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: Despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly 8 lines per 100 people. However, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective.
domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors
international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.al
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
455 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30,000 (2003)

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   Transportation    Albania
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 447 km
standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 18,000 km
paved: 5,400 km
unpaved: 12,600 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing
43 km (2004)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 40,878 GRT/62,676 DWT
by type: bulk 1, cargo 19, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Netherlands 1
registered in other countries: 7 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
11 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Albania
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Forces Command, Doctrine and Exercises Command, Logistics Support Command
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 956,107 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 775,422 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 36,584 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$56.5 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.49% (FY02)

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   Transnational Issues    Albania
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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