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Map of Algeria

DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Algeria
Background:
Definition Field Listing
After a century of rule by France, and in the wake of 1948 elections rigged by French colonists to reverse the sweeping victory of a Muslim political party in 1947, Algerians fought through the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent generation were not satisified, however, and moved to counter the FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting spurred the army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent an extremist-led government from assuming power. The Algerian army began a crack down on the FIS that resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict between Islamic activists and the secular state apparatus. The government later allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religiously-based parties, but did not appease the activists who progressively widened their attacks. Operations by the activists and the army resulted in nearly 100,000 deaths during the decade-long conflict. The government gained the upper hand by the mid-1990s and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. Many armed militants of other groups surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation, but small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional attacks on villages. Issues facing the winner of the April 2004 presidential election include Berber unrest, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, the presence of a group in the southern regions of the country that kidnapped European tourists in 2003, as well as the need to diversify Algeria's petroleum-based economy. Algeria assumed a two-year seat on the UN Security Council in January 2004.

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   Geography    Algeria
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
998 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3.22%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 96.53% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
5,600 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

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   People    Algeria
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32,129,324 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.9% (male 4,893,971; female 4,705,933)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 10,593,840; female 10,443,300)
65 years and over: 4.6% (male 703,420; female 788,860) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23.8 years
male: 23.7 years
female: 24 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.28% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.76 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.61 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 32.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.74 years
male: 71.22 years
female: 74.34 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algeirs; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70%
male: 78.8%
female: 61% (2003 est.)

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   Government    Algeria
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Algiers
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 9 May 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held NA April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali Benflis 6.4%, Abdallah Djaballah 5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years)
elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 30 December 2003 (next to be held NA 2009)
election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 199, RND 48, Islah 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, EnNahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party NA
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Court Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exiled in Germany)]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boujerra SOLTANI]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Ali BENFLIS, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Yacine TERKMANE]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exiled in Switzerland)]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY
chancery: 2137 Wyoming Ave NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. ERDMAN (as of 10 July 2003)
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (21) 691-425/255/186
FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

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   Economy    Algeria
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the seventh-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Economic policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club in the past decade have helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators. Because of sustained high oil prices in the past three years, Algeria's finances have further benefited from substantial trade surpluses and record foreign exchange reserves. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy moves ahead slowly.
GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $196 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 56.5%
services: 33.4% (2003)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.8% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
23% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
35.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.6 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.2% (2003 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $25.49 billion
expenditures: $22.87 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41.5% of GDP (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.69 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.9 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
340 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
275 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.52 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
209,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.1 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
80.3 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.32 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
57.98 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.739 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.836 billion (2003)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$24.96 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 19.7%, US 18.7%, France 13.8%, Spain 11.3%, Canada 6.9%, Belgium 5.1%, Turkey 4.4%, Brazil 4.3% (2003 est.)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.42 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 32.1%, Italy 9.9%, Spain 6.3%, Germany 5.7%, China 4.8% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$33.42 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$22.71 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$182 million (2001 est.)
Currency:
Definition Field Listing
Algerian dinar (DZD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
DZD
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Algerian dinars per US dollar - 77.395 (2003), 79.6819 (2002), 77.215 (2001), 75.2598 (2000), 66.5739 (1999)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year

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   Communications    Algeria
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,199,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,447,310 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)
international: country code - 213; 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.dz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
897 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
500,000 (2002)

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   Transportation    Algeria
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2003)
Highways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 104,000 km
paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,344 km (1999)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 1,344 km; gas 87,347 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km; oil 6,496 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 59 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 837,676 GRT/929,847 DWT
by type: bulk 9, cargo 16, chemical tanker 6, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea/passenger 4, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: United Kingdom 4
registered in other countries: 4 (2003 est.)
Airports:
Definition Field Listing
137 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 53
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 84
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 19 (2003 est.)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2003 est.)

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   Military    Algeria
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
People's National Army (ANP; includes Ground Forces), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force (QJA), Territorial Air Defense
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 9,311,747 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,675,739 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 373,235 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,196.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2003)

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   Transnational Issues    Algeria
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Libya claims about 32,000 sq km in a dormant dispute still reflected on its maps in southeastern Algeria; Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who destabilize southern Algerian towns; border with Morocco remains closed over mutual claims of harboring militants, arms smuggling; Algeria supports the exiled Sahrawi Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; Algerian FLN asserts claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Large portions of this information is from the US government open source publication "The World Factbook", other content copyright © Stratus-Pikpuk, Inc. You may use this information without permission for educational or other non-profit purposes if you refer to us as the source, contact us if you want to use this commercially.


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